The factors of globalization have a wide impact on the state sovereignty. There are increasing political, economic, and social forces that degrade the importance and authority of states creating an avenue for a more incorporation. This has put the question of whether or not the factors of globalization did decrease the sovereignty of states. The primary issue being debated is largely concerning the prospect of the state sovereignty. Will the state maintain its key role in the international system or be overshadowed.
The state system has evolved over time and the present modern state is arguably of a Western concept. There are other forms of governance over the past centuries but are seen as failed as state system came to dominate the international system. However, due to global forces pressure is building up threaten to undermine the modern states. The future role of states is now in doubt, even continued existence of states as sovereign entities. From this view there are two contending arguments that are for and against the question of the survival of state sovereignty.
Stephen Krasner on one hand believes that the forces of globalisation do not and should not endanger the existence of the state, as states have the ability to continue to exist as a sovereign entity. On the other hand, Kimberly Weir argued that since the world progressively more interdependent the position of states has become outdated. This has put the hypothesis of whether the present model of governance nevertheless the best model for the future. The issue of state sovereignty as debated by Stephen Krasner and Kimberly Weir have supporting arguments respectively.
Stephen Krasner in his arguments highlighted that states as independent entities will definitely change through the combined forces of globalisation, monetary unions, CNN, the internet, and non-government organisation (NGOs). However, he maintained that history has proved itself the survivability of states. That is states has an instinct for continued existence and has so far tackling new challenges. By that even though there are influences and forces to the domestic structures of states from outside actor’s sovereignty still remain appealing.
He argued that when observers stress that the sovereign state is just about dead; this does not mean that constitutional structures are about to vanish. They mainly refer to the difficulty states faced in controlling the movements of material things and non-material things across their borders. Here the most significant force of economic globalisation and transnational norms will be to change the capacity of state authority than to establish some new way to coordinate political life.
As stressed by Krasner, “smaller, weaker states are the most frequent targets of external efforts to alter domestic institutions, but more powerful states are not immune. ” For example, compare the nature of U. S and Nauru as state entity. Krasner agrees that the European Union is a new model for Supranational Governance but can work only for the Europeans. For instance, including the former communist states of Central Europe into EU will cause complication. Even though the European Union model looks attractive it is not a model that other parts of the world can replicate.
“The EU is a new and unique institutional structure, but it will coexist with, not displace, the sovereign-state model. ” In contrast, Kimberly Weir argued that sovereign state will fall somehow and will not be in power forever in the international system as some people think. There are all sorts of things and forces that eroding state sovereignty, like from the industrial revolution to the initiation of the internet, colonialism to the establishment of the European Union.
By this she said that state will try to withstand these forces however it will follow the same path of the Holy Roman Empire. She stressed that sovereign state is not about dead but they are dying, they are outdated institutions that have trouble in satisfying the needs of their citizens. In theory all states that are recognize as sovereign are equal and have the same status as other states. However, many states are not able to uphold their role and functions as a state though they have the features required to act as a sovereign state.
They fail to provide security, social services and economic security for their own citizens. The involvement of state with international bodies, NGOs and the signing of treaties have also degrading their sovereignty. For instance, services provided by NGOs weaken state ability and responsibility because citizens depend more on NGOs rather than the state. States have less option in deciding due to the requirements of international treaties. In the name of humanitarian intervention there is interference in the domestic affairs of states.
Kimberly Weir believes that forming regional blocs will be beneficial to states and the EU model is what is likely to come. States can work together to achieve their goals where one can not accomplish by itself. In overall, I agree with the views and arguments of Kimberly Weir for the following reasons. The arguments of Stephen Krasner are bias when taking into account the concept of sovereignty. As highlighted above any state recognized as sovereign by the international community whether developed or developing warrant the same status as other state.
Stephen Krasner said that “smaller, weaker states are the most frequent targets of external efforts… but more powerful states are not immune. ” The question is about the sovereignty of a state generally, will it survive globalism and continued to exist. The impacts of the external forces as highlighted above are practically evident causing a doubtful future for state as a political entity in the international system. I also agree with Kimberly Weir that the model of EU is another likely new form of governance.
Because of these factors states needs cooperation to fulfil some of their responsibility as a state. Now there are increasing numbers of regional groupings in the world as well in the Pacific like the MSG. Here I can say the state system is dying. Bibliography Krasner, S ‘Sovereignty’, Foreign Policy, January/February 2001. Weir, K ‘The Waning State of Sovereignty’, in John Rourke (Ed), Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in World Politics, 11 Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2004.