Turning our grief into courage is a credo that basically calls for national recovery amidst terrorist threats that has enabled the Americans to overcome their grief and become courageous to surpass the inimical challenge. Indeed, America turned its grief into courage as manifested in condemning the ultimate cohort of terrorism in the US war in Iraq. The Iraq war has highlighted the US’s capabilities to disarm Saddam Hussein’s weapons of mass destruction and liberate the people from the tyrannical regime and set a new Iraqi government.
The US government has realigned its governmental functions to respond to its vulnerability to the continuing threat of terrorism and shared its burdens with allied governments. The framing of the national policy for an efficient homeland defense system has paved the way for the enactment of the Intelligence Reform and terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA ), which an act to reform the intelligence operational framework for efficient capability.
According to Terri Everret’s paper, “Procuring the Future: 21st Century IC Acquisition,” in January 8th 2008, IRTPA yielded a strategic defense program through the Office of the Director of the National Intelligence (ODNI). The main purpose of the ODNI program, according to Everret, is to avert conflict and preserve peace while specifically focusing on: (1) military, (2) proliferation, (3) foreign policy, (4) economics, (5) terrorism, narcotics, international organized crimes, (6) technology, and (7) regional conflict.
Furthermore, the ODNI program empowers the IRTPA to support the enactment of US Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 2007 which modernized the National economic programs for Fiscal Year 2008. The overall representation of this development supports the US Counterintelligence Strategy of 2007 basically empowers the homeland defense system. Defining of a Policy From the previous discussions of issues as presented with a brief review of literatures and statistical data, it has been cited that the need of the US government and its people is to materialize and put into national perspective the country’s security.
In this aspect, the effectiveness, applicability, and efficiency to enact the US security and defense policy will be examined through the concept and ethical parameters based on the book, American Public Policy: An Introduction. i) According to the American Public Policy: An Introduction, the analysis of a policy requires the interpretation and examination of the fundamental conditions and rationale to enact a policy. Based on the book, “policy analysis is not value neutral but wants to discover the significance and importance to public values”.
In short, public policy is characterized by objectivity of reasoning and intention for a public interest. Furthermore, according to Cochran, et. al, a public policy must be dealt with classifications of purposes, types, and goods. In other words, the objectivity and rationality are combined factors that exemplify the importance, adequacy, applicability, and affectivity of the public policy to the life of the people and well-being of the state.
This analysis also coincides and adheres to the moral and social values. In this regard, one example is the threat on terrorism to American people which does not only address the enactment of IRTPA and other programs on State security but also embraces all forms of terrorism-related violence occurring within a domestic domain that may be inflicted by a common crime or street crime, which is commonly called community crimes.
ii) The classification of the policy is mainly to deter crime and enact on crime through imposing the punishment or penalty as provided by the rules of court and the due process of law. Another example of terrorism-related violence is the magnitude or scope of implication or damage by size and by number of casualties within household or community, especially when children and women are the victims of crimes.
These also include multiple murders with mutilation of the bodies, rape, burglary and arson, which are also considered as heinous crimes. It may be interpreted from the point of view of securing the state that the subsequent enactment of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2007, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 2007, and the Counterintelligence Strategy of 2007, focuses on counter-terrorism.
On the other hand, the enactment of the National Strategy for Homeland Security of 2007 embodies and embraces all of the provisions from previous policy enactments, which could be interpreted as reinvented applications and coherent enforcements within the domestic system of governance and national policy environment. In short, the scope of the applicability the National Strategy for Homeland Security of 2007 addresses the framework policy.