Specialized agencies are autonomous organizations working with the UN and each other through the coordinating machinery of the United Nations Economic and Social Council at the intergovernmental level, and through the Chief Executives Board for coordination (CEB) at the inter-secretariat level.
Specialized agencies may or may not have been originally created by the United Nations, but they are incorporated into the United Nations System by the United Nations Economic and Social Council acting under Articles 57 and 63 of the United Nations Charter. At present the UN has in total 17 specialized agencies that carry out various functions on behalf of the UN.
The specialized agencies are as follows: |Contents | |1 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) | |2 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) | |3 International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) | |4 International Labour Organization (ILO) | |5 International Maritime Organization (IMO) | |6 International Monetary Fund (IMF) | |7 International Telecommunication Union (ITU) | |8 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) | |9 United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) | |10 Universal Postal Union (UPU) | |11 World Bank Group | |11.
1 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) | |11. 2 International Finance Corporation (IFC) | |11. 3 International Development Association (IDA) | |12 World Health Organization (WHO) | |13 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) | |14 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) | |15 World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) | Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. FAO’s mandate is to raise levels of nutrition, improve agricultural productivity, better the lives of rural populations and contribute to the growth of the world economy. FAO is the largest of UN agencies and its headquarters are in Rome, Italy. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. FAO is also a source of knowledge and information, and helps developing countries and countries in transition modernise and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all. Its Latin motto, fiat panis, translates into English as “let there be bread”. As of 8 August 2008[update], FAO has 191 members states along with the European Union, Faroe Islands and Tokelau which are associate members.
 It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.  Background The idea of an international organization for food and agriculture emerged in the late 19th and early 20th century. In May–June 1905, an international conference was held in Rome, Italy, which lead to the creation of an International Agricultural Institute.  Later in 1943, the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt called a United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture. Representatives from forty four governments gathered at the Homestead Hotel, Hot Springs, Virginia, from 18 May to 3 June.
They committed themselves to founding a permanent organization for food and agriculture, which happened in Quebec City, Canada on October 16, 1945.  The First Session of the FAO Conference was held in the Chateau Frontenac at Quebec, Canada, from 16 October to 1 November 1945 The Second World War effectively ended the International Agricultural Institute, though it was only officially dissolved by resolution of its Permanent Committee on February 27, 1948. Its functions were then transferred to the recently established FAO.  Structure and finance.
FAO was established on 16 October 1945, in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. In 1951, its headquarters were moved from Washington, D. C. , United States, to Rome, Italy. The agency is directed by the Conference of Member Nations, which meets every two years to review the work carried out by the organization and to approve a Programme of Work and Budget for the next two-year period. The Conference elects a council of 49 member states (serve three-year rotating terms) that acts as an interim governing body, and the Director-General, that heads the agency.
FAO is composed of eight departments: Administration and Finance, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Economic and Social Development, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Forestry, Knowledge and Communication, Natural Resource Management and Technical Cooperation.  Beginning in 1994, FAO underwent the most significant restructuring since its founding, to decentralize operations, streamline procedures and reduce costs. As result, savings of about US$50 million, €35 million a year were realized. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) [pic] [pic].
ICAO flag. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was founded in 1947. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. Its headquarters are located in the Quartier international de Montreal of Montreal, Canada. The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation.
In addition, the ICAO defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, commonly known as the Chicago Convention. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) was established as an international financial institution in 1977, as one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference and a response to the situation in the Sahel.
IFAD is dedicated to eradicating rural poverty in developing countries. Its headquarters are in Rome, Italy. International Labour Organization (ILO) [pic] [pic] ILO flag. The International Labour Organization (ILO) deals with labour issues. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded in 1919, it was formed through the negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles, and was initially an agency of the League of Nations. It became a member of the UN system after the demise of the League and the formation of the UN at the end of World War II.
Its Constitution, as amended to date, includes the Declaration of Philadelphia on the aims and purposes of the Organization. Its secretariat is known as the International Labour Office. International Maritime Organization (IMO) [pic] [pic] IMO flag. The International Maritime Organization (IMO), formerly known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), was established in 1948 through the United Nations to coordinate international maritime safety and related practices. However the IMO did not enter into full force until 1958.
Headquartered in London, United Kingdom, the IMO promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to prevent marine pollution. IMO is governed by an Assembly of members and is financially administered by a Council of members elected from the Assembly. The work of IMO is conducted through five committees and these are supported by technical sub-committees. Member organizations of the UN organizational family may observe the proceedings of the IMO. Observer status may be granted to qualified non-governmental organizations.
The IMO is supported by a permanent secretariat of employees who are representative of its members. The secretariat is composed of a Secretary-General who is periodically elected by the Assembly, and various divisions including, inter alia, marine safety, environmental protection, and a conference section. International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Monetary Fund (IMF) provides monetary cooperation and financial stability and acts as a forum for advice, negotiation and assistance on financial issues. It is headquartered in Washington, D. C. , United States. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) [pic].
[pic] ITU flag. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) was established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. It was founded as the International Telegraph Union in Paris on 17 May 1865. Its main tasks include standardization, allocation of the radio spectrum, and organizing interconnection arrangements between different countries to allow international phone calls — in which regard it performs for telecommunications a similar function to what the UPU performs for postal services. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, next to the main United Nations campus.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) [pic] [pic] UNESCO flag. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1946 with its headquarters in Paris, France. Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria. The Organization’s primary objective is the promotion and acceleration of industrial development in developing countries and countries with economies in transition and the promotion of international industrial cooperation. UNIDO believes that competitive and environmentally sustainable industry has a crucial role to play in accelerating economic growth, reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
The Organization therefore works towards improving the quality of life of the world’s poor by drawing on its combined global resources and expertise in the following three interrelated thematic areas: • Poverty reduction through productive activities; • Trade capacity-building; and • Energy and environment. Universal Postal Union (UPU) [pic] [pic] UPU flag. Main article: Universal Postal Union The Universal Postal Union (UPU), headquartered in Berne, Switzerland, coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the worldwide postal system.
Each member country agrees to the same set of terms for conducting international postal duties. World Bank Group The World Bank Group comprises a group of five legally separate but affiliated institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International Development Association (IDA), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). It is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world.
Its mission is to fight poverty with passion and professionalism for lasting results and to help people help themselves and their environment by providing resources, sharing knowledge, building capacity and forging partnerships in the public and private sectors. Three of the five World Bank Group organizations, namely the IBRD, the IFC, and the IDA, are specialized agencies of the United Nations.  International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) The IBRD makes loans to developing countries for development programmes with the stated goal of reducing poverty.
It is part of the World Bank Group (WBG). International Finance Corporation (IFC) The IFC is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. It is part of the World Bank Group (WBG). International Development Association (IDA) The IDA’s mandate is close to that of IBRD, with the focus on the poorest countries. It is part of the World Bank Group (WBG). World Health Organization (WHO) [pic] [pic] WHO flag. The World Health Organization (WHO) acts as a coordinating authority on international public health.
Established on 7 April 1948, and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health Organization, which had been an agency of the League of Nations. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) The World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations created in 1967 and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Its purpose is to encourage creative activity and to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world.
The organisation administers several treaties concerning the protection of intellectual property rights. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) [pic] [pic] WMO flag. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873. Established in 1950, WMO became the specialized agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) was established in 1946 in London, United Kingdom, to replace the International Union of Official Tourist Propaganda Organization (IUOTPO). UNWTO has 160 member states and 350 affiliated members representing private organizations, educational institutions and others. It is headquartered in Madrid, Spain. The World Tourism Organization serves as a forum for tourism policies and acts as a practical source for tourism know-how.