In organized crime, the term social institution could be used to refer to the roles, the positions, or the relations among criminals that make up their organization. It is clear that organized crime has supplanted many of the functions of the state, and currently represents the only fully functioning social institution. For instance, organized crime provides many of the services that citizens expect from the state-protection if commercial business, employment for citizens, meditation in disputes.
In the absence of a functioning commercial order, businesses rely on the mafia to collect debts to collect and to resolve disputes with suppliers and competitors. Private security, mostly run by organized crime, is replacing state law enforcement, with over 200,000 private law enforcers operating without any regulation. The occurrence of these organized crimes is encouraged by government’s social policy. If the government fails to take measures to reduce the rate at which these criminals are operating, then organized crime will replace the largely dysfunctional state.
Criminal organizations do everything they can to ensure that it is safe for them to operate. Among the things they consider first is the need for protection, which they get from the police. They also ensure that they have financial mobility and protection to launder their earnings, and bring them into the legal economic system. Political protection might be harder to see, but it is also important in creating a powerful buffer against law enforcement and judicial authorities if they decide to move against a criminal organization.
These are some of the necessities that prompt criminal investigations to infiltrate government and corrupt public officials to win the complicity or tolerance needed to continue or expand criminal activities. Theories relating to organized crime The primary theory of organized crime is power and profit; all criminal groups share these goals. Official protection theory This theory focuses on enabling interaction, and, to some extent, conjunctive relationships.
In the developed countries, relationships between criminal organizations and political and economic elites are generally regarded as the most mature and developed forms of organized crimes. Russia is one of the countries where organized crime is most developed. Large criminal organizations have at least three connections: between extortionists and security companies, between licit and illicit businesses and that between criminals on the one side and political and bureaucratic elites on the other.
Today, some criminal structures have coalitions with the ruling authorities, and organized crime is penetrating the sphere of management of the banking business, major production units and trading organizations. To prevent this, the government has been making attempt to place a certain law-enforcement structures and mass media under control of criminal associations. Recruitment for criminal organizations is easy, as illicit routes for advancement promise far greater and more immediate rewards than legitimate avenues.
However, it makes no provision for the two extremes of involvement with organized crime: the incidental encounter, wherein the official is expected to comply in the instant case, only, and, at the other extreme, the complete absorption of civic authority by the mob. When the official is providing the mob with a benefit, a single instant is not protection. This theory could also be inadequate in explaining situations in which organized crime and civic leadership are integrated. Conflict theory
Conflict theory finds its roots in the sociological theories of Weber and Simmel and assumes that greater levels of conflict than consensus characterize societies. Additionally, certain segments of society gain power by forming strategic alliances. The conflict theory portrays modern society as so heterogonous that there is little value consensus among the population at large. Criss-crossing the balancing cleavages and group compromises form the basis for the organization of society today. There is some validity to this conflict image, although it remains incomplete. Hierarchical theory
The hierarchical model describes the structure of organized crime as a family with ranks from bosses to solders, where the boss supervises the activities and is in control of the group members’ behavior. A commission of bosses exists that handles disputes between “families” and it proves certain aspects of the organized crime organization of families. The American mafia exemplifies this model. Local ethic theory The local or ethnic model of organized crime is bound together by cultural or ethnic ties. Activities are controlled by individuals, rather than by a single boss.
Partnerships form around choices to work on a particular project or in a specific area. This model suggests that there is no national commission that overseas all groups. In many instances, the activities if these models are similar to legitimate business, are not ethically exclusive of violent, and center on market opportunities. An example is the cooperation between the Italians, Greek, Irish, Jews, and African-American criminal groups. Also, the cooperation between the Columbian drug cartels, and the Mexican drug cartels and black Jamaican, and Dominican criminal groups applies the local ethnic theory.