Social crisis

The restraints mainly accrue from the interaction that the person has with his or her environment. Although Freud explained personality basing them on psychosexual characteristics, Erik Erikson based the personality traits in psychosocial development. The interaction with the people around a person influences personality development for that person. at each stage of development, a person faces some social crisis that allows for development to the next stage if it is resolved but interference to development results in the event when the social crisis is not resolved.

When the social crisis of each stage is resolved, the individual is in a better position to deal with the crisis that comes in the succeeding stage (Vigil, Geary & Byrd-Craven, 2005). According to Sigmund Freud, all types of behaviors and personalities are shaped by the urges of drives and the moral rules in the personality. This means that, personality is the product of psychic determinism hence the individual does not have the freedom to choose. The structure of personality is in three parts, that is, the id, ego and superego.

Id is present at birth and it has all the psychological energy that an individual requires in order to adequately function psychologically. Id is constantly being produced hence it does not need extraordinary effort for it to be produced. Freud’s augment is that, the psychic energy produced by id should be used because if it is allowed to accumulate, it may cause pain and discomfort and consequently diverse behavioral problems such as criminal behavior (Louw, n. d. , p. 44). Ego on the other hand, includes the urge for the individual to survive for instance the desire to have water, food and oxygen.

Ego drives are not bound by stringent oral regulations hence it may cause a few or no psychological difficulties for the person. Furthermore, the pressures from the superego may require the person to conform to the rules of the society and this creates conflict between the ego and the superego which may lead to the development of defense mechanisms by the person (Hendrick, 2007). Based on Freud’s psychoanalysis, personality structure of three parts; the ego, the id and the superego shape personality or psychic.

Aggressive and sexual instincts reside in the id; psychic energy that triggers constructive behavior is a manifestation of sexual instinct while destructive psychic energy is the manifestation of aggressive instinct. In general, Freud saw that the id operates on pleasure seeking principle thus seeks to achieve instant satisfaction regardless of the rules and norms of the society or the feelings and rights of the other people. The concept of id therefore, provides insights in understanding some of the types of criminal behaviors (Cassel & Bernstein, 2007).

In our case study, understanding of the concept of id will facilitate for the understanding of Mary’s criminal behavior. Her aggressive instinct is manifested by her aggressive behavior as she noted to engage in a number of criminal activities among them being; robbery, murder, and other property and violence offenses. During development, an individual is confronted by various unconscious conflicts in his or her environment that must be solved in order for the individual to develop to the next stage. In the event that the unconscious conflicts are not solved, it results to fixation or preoccupation hence may lead to turmoil of personality.

For instance; individuals who experience fixation at the oral stage tend to unconsciously show dissatisfaction with the care that they obtained from their caregivers. For that reason, such people are bound to be overly independent and refuse any kind of assistance that comes from any other person; or they may be overly dependent in such that they always wait on someone to do a thing for him or her. On the other hand, an individual who experiences fixation at the anal stage of development is likely to display personality characteristics associated with self control or exercising control over the other people.

Therefore, such persons are obsessively rigid, messy or conforming, orderly, disorganized, or defiant (Cassel & Bernstein, 2007). To a large extent, Mary’s aggressive personality may be attributed to fixation at one of the stages of development. A defiance or defiant behavior may be a result of fixation at the anal stage of development hence she lives a rather disorganized kind of live. She does not exhibit self control over her behavior and instead she exercises control of there people in particular, he victims.