Introduction Screen printing is a great introduction to the art of Printmaking. Printmaking was originally a form of Communication before becoming an art form. With the advent of the printing press, art prints began to be valued as originals and in the 19th century artists began producing limited edition prints. This Project is intended to introduce Screen Printing to you and help you learn hat screen printing is all about and how to do. As you read on you will learn more. Page: 1 Acknowledgement Apart from the efforts of us the success of any project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others.
We take this opportunity to express our gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. We would like to show our greatest appreciation to Mr. Sinclair. We can’t say thank you enough for his tremendous support and help. We feel motivated and encouraged every time we attend his class. Without his encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized. The guidance and support received from all the members who contributed and who are contributing to this project, was vital for the success of the project. We are grateful for their constant support and help.
Page: 2 What Is Screen Printing? Screen printing (also known as silk screening) is one of the oldest methods of printmaking, with examples dating back to the Song Dynasty in China. The process involves creating a stencil of an image on a screen of porous mesh, traditionally made of silk. A roller or squeegee is used to pull paint-like ink over the stencil, forcing it through the mesh onto the paper being printed. Unlike the inks used in some other forms of printing, screen printing ink sits right on the surface of paper, resulting in incredibly rich, vibrant color. Page: 3 Brief
History Today, screen printing is a popular tool used by companies for anything from promotional mugs to movie posters to graphic t-shirts, but its history is as rich as the pallet of colors used by modern screen printers. The inception of screen printing dates back thousands for years. By cutting shapes into banana leaves and pressing dye into the cut-out portions, early Polynesian Island natives were able to produce some of the first screen prints. This process transferred the stenciled design onto a bark cloth. This is the basic premise of screen printing – forcing dye through a stencil to create a design.
Early forms of stenciling (using blowpipes to apply the colorant) were also found in the caves of Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. At the time of the Sung Dynasty (A. D. 960 -1280), the Japanese were using stencils to produce intricate designs. In order to keep smaller, loose pieces of a stencil in place, Japanese printers used human hair as a “tie. ” Human hair was strong enough to secure the free parts and thin enough to allow ink to pass around them and onto the desired medium. In the middle ages, similar stenciling was used for mass production, such as the production of the Hoyle playing card.
In the 1700s, western culture caught onto screen printing. In England, screen printing was used for wall designs, like wall paper in upper-class homes. At first, Englanders were using “ties,” but intricate designs necessitated a change. Silk replaced human hair, which allowed for more intricate and uniform prints. This is also where the name silk screen printing derived, although silk is rarely used anymore; man-made plastics or metal are the preferred materials for modern screen printers. In 1907, Samuel Simon of Manchester, England patented the first industrial screen printing process.
His process paved the way for modern screen printers, which used woven silk instead of “ties” to hold the stencil in place. Detailed designs were glued to the mesh fabric. In 1914, San Franciscan John Pilsworth, patented a multicolor screen printing process. During World War I, from 1914-1918, screen printing was used extensively for recruiting, such as the ubiquitous “Uncle Sam wants you,” posters. Screen printing was ideal for high-quality, high-volume signage. Screen printing remains a staple in promotions and advertising.
In the 1920s, screen printing was used by a number of graphic artists of the Art Deco and Art Nouveau movements. They referred to the process as serigraphy. In the UK in the late 40s and early 50s, Francis and Dorothy Carr are sometimes attributed as the first artists to use screen printing as a fine art in its own right. In the 1960s, Pop Art was popularized by the likes of Andy Warhol, Rauschenberg and Hamilton, which furthered the movement of screen printing as an art form. Graphic (and art) screen printing is still widely used in mass media but also in an underground do-it-yourself screen printing subculture.
This is due to its low cost and ability to print on a variety of media. Page: 5 Process of Screen Printing A method of stenciling that has increased in popularity over the past years is the photo emulsion technique: Hand-painted color separation on transparent overlay by serigraph printer Casaba Markus The original image is created on a transparent overlay, and the image may be drawn or painted directly on the overlay, photocopied, or printed with a computer printer, but making so that the areas to be inked are not transparent. A black-and-white positive may also be used (projected on to the screen).
However, unlike traditional plate-making, these screens are normally exposed by using film positives. A screen must then be selected. There are several different mesh counts that can be used depending on the detail of the design being printed. Once a screen is selected, the screen must be coated with emulsion and put to dry in a dark room. Once dry, it is then possible to burn/expose the print. The overlay is placed over the screen, and then exposed with a light source containing ultraviolet light in the 350-420 Nano meter spectrum.
The screen is washed off thoroughly. The areas of emulsion that were not exposed to light dissolve and wash away, leaving a negative stencil of the image on the mesh. Page: 6 Materials Used The Materials Used Are: . Exposure unit to .Washout booth and garden hose . Drying rack to dry screens . Dark room to coat screens . Screen printing . Flash cure unit . Belt dryer . Pressure washer . Scoop coater . Squeegees . Screens with mesh . Ink scoops or spatulas . Ruler and t square . Spot cleaning gun . Scrub brushes Page: 6 Pictures Page: 7