SCI220 Nutrition and Health Worksheet

Use Ch. 1 of Contemporary Nutrition, Ch. 2 of Visualizing Nutrition, supplemental course materials, the University Library, the Internet, or other resources to answer the following questions. Your response to each question should be 75 to 100 words.

1. What is nutrition? Why is nutrition essential to our daily lives?

Nutrition is the science of our intake and utilization of food. Proper nutrition can help prevent or lessen the instances of disease. Improper nutrition can lead to a weakened immune system and even disease.

In fact, A poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle are known to be risk factors for life-threatening chronic diseases such as cardiovascular (heart) disease, hypertension, diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Furthermore a well-balanced diet can improve daily performance mentally, emotionally, physically and spiritually. Reference: Contemporary Nutrition, Eighth Edition Chapter 1: What You Eat and Why

ISBN: 9780073040547 Author: Gordon M. Wardlaw, PH.D., Anne M. SmithPH.D., R.D., L.D. copyright © 2011 McGraw-Hill Company

2. What is the connection between nutrition and health?

“Nutrients are the substances obtained from food that are vital for growth and maintenance of a healthy body throughout life.” Study after study has shown that people who eat whole foods rich in nutrients enjoy vital health, longer life and a reduced risk of many diseases. Eating nutrient-rich foods can also help people to maintain healthy body weight; being overweight or obese has been found to be linked to numerous chronic diseases. If people are careful with their nutrition they can live almost worry free until their body naturally slows down.

3. What are the six classes of nutrients? What are essential nutrients? What are the sources of nutrients? What do nutrients do? The six classes of nutrients are Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water. According to Wardlaw and Smith essential nutrients are food substances that provide energy, Promote Growth, Development, Maintenance, and Regulate Body Processes.

All six classes are essential nutrients that are broken up into three subgroups according to their purpose. The sources of these nutrients include meats, nuts, fish, dairy, fruits and vegetables. Nutrients are the building blocks of the human body. Each nutrient brings its unique and important value to promote health and welfare of the body, mind, and spirit.

4. How do vitamins and minerals work? Vitamins and minerals are needed by the body in such small amounts that they are called micronutrients. However they play a very important role that is divinely possible due to their chemical properties. Vitamins act like catalysts when it comes to nutrient processing.

The body needs to utilize their precious chemical compounds and elements to release the energy from nutrients once they are inside the body. Minerals on the other hand are simple inorganic substance that helps build certain parts of our bodies.

5. What does it mean to eat a balanced diet? Why is food choice important for good nutrition?

To eat a balanced diet one should make sure to take portions from all the nutrient classes appropriately. This may change from one person to the next and so we all should have a eating plan that helps us balance our ratios of meats, vegetables, fruit and nuts. The most neglected regimen is the recommended 5-9 servings of fruits and vegetables a day and these items are usually replaced with convenience food. Food choice is important for performance and well-being so we should be careful not to fall into social traps and pressure induced feeding frenzies.

6. What is undernutrition? What is overnutrition?

Under-nutrition is a condition that occurs when a person consumes a diet that does not meet the requirements for the amount of essential nutrients or calories a person needs to remain healthy. This type of malnutrition can occur when people are not eating enough food, or when the food they are eating does not contain well-balanced nutrients. Over-nutrition occurs when a person consumes a diet that exceeds the requirements for the amount of essential nutrients, or the amount of calories a person needs to remain healthy.

Over-nutrition can lead to increased risk of developing heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and even some cancers. http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/malnutrition-causes-of-over-nutrition-and-under-nutrition-most-affected-regions.html#lesson

7. Why is physical activity important as it relates to nutrition and health?

Regular physical activity can produce long term health benefits. People of all ages, shapes, sizes, and abilities can benefit from being physically active. The more physical activity you do, the greater the health benefits. Physical activity and nutrition work together for better health. Being active increases the amount of calories burned. As people age their metabolism slows, so maintaining energy balance requires moving more and eating less. Physical activity promotes excretion which is not only an important part of digestion but also helps remove toxins from our body.

8. Where might you find dietary recommendations? What are the recommended dietary allowances (RDA)? What are dietary reference intakes (DRIs)?

In the 1940’s the Food and Nutrition Board developed the first set of recommendations for specific amounts of nutrients. These came to be known as the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs).

The original RDAs made recommendations on amounts of energy and on specific nutrients that were most likely to be deficient in people’s diets—protein, iron, calcium, vitamins A and D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C. Recommended intakes were based on amounts that would prevent nutrient deficiencies. In the 1980’s dietary deficiencies were added to the program and it became a list of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).

9. The United States Department of Agriculture created a diagram titledMyPlate. What is this diagram? Why should someone study this diagram?

U.S. Department of Agriculture, http://www.choosemyplate.gov/; National Agricultural Library, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Early food guides have evolved into MyPlate, which suggests amounts and types of food from five food groups to meet the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines. MyPlate can be used to plan a diet based on the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines.

The plate icon illustrates the proportions of food recommended from each of five food groups: Fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, and dairy. Half of your plate should be fruits and vegetables, about a quarter grains and about a quarter protein foods. Dairy should accompany meals as shown by the glass to the side The MyPlate diagram shows what a balanced meal should look like

10. What are some tools for diet planning? Tools for diet planning can be found free of cost publicly online, and at the library. Key messages from the Dietary Guidelines to help consumers balance calories and increase the nutrient density of their diet are shared and even taught on the website www.choosemyplate.gov.

Visiting this site gives educational opportunity for diet, physical activity, financial planning and keeps you up to date on any health issues from different government resources. Select the Sample Menus and Recipes and Healthy Tips sections for a quick start.

11. What is the calorie intake calculator? What factors does this calculator take into account?

A calorie intake calculator utilizes general information including Body Mass, gender, and age to figure out how many calories per day you should take in. Estimates can be tailored to the desires of the individual under consideration depending on their particular goal. If one wishes to lose weight or gain weight than that person should set their goals higher or lower proportionately. For example a person wishing to lose weight rather than maintaining their weight might take in 500 less calories per day.

12. What are some dangers associated with dieting?Fad diets are dangerous for numerous reasons. First, one should consider that there is an interruption of your positive health flow or homeostasis.

This can result in binge eating where, often, the subconscious effort to make up for lost calories is overdone. Next, consider muscle loss as a result of diet devoid of protein. Consider that there could be fatigue and even nausea, which seems to be the normal side effects of the popular juice fasts. Finally we cannot forget the effects unhealthy diets have on mental health; where you can find irritability sadness or even depression.

13. What is the best way to lose weight? Explain your answer and provide at least one source, formatted consistent with APA guidelines, to support your answer.

The best way to avoid the consequences of unhealthy dieting is to establish healthy eating patterns. It is much healthier and you will see greater results in the long term if you adjust your diet gradually. Identify aspects of your diet that you want to change and work on one component at a time. Find ways to cut a few hundred calories each day. Exercise at least thirty minutes, five times a week. Address your emotional needs. Over time, you will see the pounds fall off and stay off in the long term.

14. How does exercise influence body weight?Exercising influences body weight because in order to lose weight you have to expend more calories than you intake each day. In order to get any long term gains one should be careful not to over exercise either as this will cause injury and that will be counterproductive as it stops the flow of homeostasis. Exercise should be enough to lift the heart rate above normal and you know the calories are burning away when you start to sweat.

15. Consider your personal dietary habits. What are some modifications you might make to promote good health?

In my own personal habits I find that I need to have more fruits and vegetables daily. Most of my vegetables now are cooked and I run the risk of having the nutrients cooked out of them. My adjustments should involve less trips to the fast food restaurants and more trips to the gym. I also have a big thirst for coffee which at times gets counterproductive as I drink myself into unconsciousness. In summation; I need less empty calories, less caffeine, more water, more leafy greens and fruit.

16. How does today’s society affect our nutritional habits?

Today everything is sold under the “bigger is better” umbrella. It does not matter whether you are at the fast food drive through or grocery store. When I was younger I was an easy target for such marketing but as I have suffered, I am now finding myself sharing meals with the wife and am not even going out as often. My overeating now comes from the convenience of everything in the house. Finally I came to terms with the fact that even though I have always had a good physique, I have to drink lots of water and increase my exercising to curb my appetite for self-destruction.