Safety in Construction

The basic of construction safety The importance of safety The evolution of construction safety Psychological aspect Behavioural aspect Situational aspect Investing in safety

Basic definitions What is safety? What is a hazard? What is a risk? Accident vs. incident vs. injury What are the causes of an accident?

Anton, T.J. (1989). Occupational safety and health management, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill. Holt, A. S. J. (2005). Principles of construction safety. Blackwell Science.

Causes of accidents Safety is always a management issue because managers decide on: • Safety budget • Resource allocation • Planning • The implementation of safety management system • Safety control • Creating safety culture in the organisation

Why safety in construction? • 7% of the world’s employment. • 30-40% of the world’s fatal injuries.

Dirty

Difficult

• At least 60,000 fatalities per year. • Due to bad and illegal work conditions.

• Falls from heights, buried in un-shored excavations, crushed by vehicles and plant. Dangerous • All causes are predictable and preventable.

Murie, F. (2007). “Building Safety–An International Perspective”. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 13, 1, pp. 5 – 11.

Why safety in construction? Good safety practices: • Avoid costs associated with accidents (prevention < accidents) • Attract new clients • Meet moral obligations imposed by the society (reputation)

Lack of safety: • Accidents human suffering • Accidents weaken morale • Prosecution and civil claim increase cost and adverse publicity Holt, A. S. J. (2005). Principles of construction safety. Blackwell Science.

The evolution of construction safety

Source: Bovis Lend Lease

The evolution of construction safety Australia: In 2010-11, there were 13,640 claims for serious injuries or illness.

Safe Work Australia. (2012). Construction Fact Sheet. Safe Work Australia.

The evolution of construction safety Fatalities: 39 – 55 annually. 4.26 fatalities per 100,000 employees (the rate for Australia is 2.23).

Human error 80% of industrial accidents

Human error 50-70% of nuclear power accidents 50% of pilot accidents

Lingard, H. and Rowlinson, S. (2005). Occupational Health and Safety in Construction Project Management. Oxon: Spon Press.

Safety culture

Health and Safety Executive (HSE). (2005). A Review of Safety Culture and Safety Climate Literature for the Development of the Safety Culture Inspection Toolkit, Research Report 367. HSE Books, ISBN 0 7176 6144 X.

Psychological aspect Safety climate: employees’ perceptions and attitudes towards safety in the organisation or in their workplace. Examples of safety climate dimensions: Management commitment Supervisor’s involvement Training Self involvement Safety rules

What are factors that affect your perceptions and attitudes? Seo, D., Torabi, M. R., Blair, E. H., and Ellis, N. T. (2004). “A Cross-Validation of Safety Climate Scale Using Confirmatory Factor Analytic Approach”. Journal of Safety Research, 35, 4, pp. 427 – 445.

Behavioural aspect Job attitudes • Job is dangerous and macho • Safety rules and procedures interfere with production • Safety rules and procedures reduce excitement

Behavioural intentions • Ignore safety rules and procedures • Take unnecessary risks

Actual behaviour • Failure to follow safety rules and procedures • Risk-taking behaviour

Lingard, H. and Rowlinson, S. (2005). Occupational Health and Safety in Construction Project Management. Oxon: Spon Press.

Behavioural aspect Motivation involves the arousal, direction, and persistence of behaviour. There are 3 keys here: What energises human behaviour. What directs human behaviour (goal orientation). How this behaviour is maintained.

Lingard, H. and Rowlinson, S. (2005). Occupational Health and Safety in Construction Project Management. Oxon: Spon Press.

Situational aspect: Management system Policy Organising Auditing Planning and implementing Measuring Reviewing Poon, S.W., Tang, S.L. and Wong, F.K.W. (2008). Management and Economics of Construction Safety in Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press.

Information link Control link

Situational aspect: Policy Company XYZ Safety Policy We, the management of this organisation, believe that each employee is entitled to receive recognition as individual, constructive leadership, equitable compensation, and an environment free of conditions that could cause bodily harm. The safety and welfare of our employees continue to be the prime consideration of this organisation. Working conditions must be maintained in a clean and orderly condition so as to encourage safe and efficient operations for all employees.

The President’s 3-Point Plan for a Safe ABC Corporation The safety of our employees is entrusted to the management of this corporation. All levels of management shall actively participate in their respective functions related to the safety of the employees of this organisation. We, the management, further require that our employees fulfil their obligations as regards their own personal safety in order to accomplish the goals of this mission

Situational aspect: Organising

Visit http://www.construction-innovation.info/index.php?id=44 for more information on safety management tasks (A Practical Guide to Safety Leadership).

Situational aspect: Implementing Hierarchy of control Elimination Substitution Engineering controls Administrative controls Personal protective equipment

Situational aspect: Measuring Accident rate (AR): number of accidents per 100k or 1 million hours of works. Incidence rate (IR): based on the number of lost time cases, lost workday rate, and fatalities, injuries, and illnesses with or without lost workdays.

Situational aspect: Measuring Using safety climate to measure safety performance: Leading indicator (instead of lagging) Identify problem areas (it provides focus) Identify trends and establish benchmark Economic and time efficient Involve employees in the process

Seo, D., Torabi, M. R., Blair, E. H., and Ellis, N. T. (2004). “A Cross-Validation of Safety Climate Scale Using Confirmatory Factor Analytic Approach”. Journal of Safety Research, 35, 4, pp. 427 – 445.

Investing in safety Safety is the right thing to do, but is it the smart thing to do? Adam Sun investigated 5 projects (above $70m) from a multinational company.

Short absence

Fatality

Long absence

Accidents

Long incapacity

Partial incapacity

Investing in safety The savings due to better performance than the construction industry average.

Savings (AUD$) Project 1 Project 2 Project 3 Project 4 Project 5 1,491,654 4,708,413 3,176,859 2,908,417 1,937,445

Rank of savings 5 1 2 3 4

Project Budget Average (AUD$ million) savings ($) 100 480 215 70 140 2,844,558

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Investing in safety The savings due to better performance than the construction industry average. ASI = Additional safety investment (industry average for safety investment is 2% of project budget).

ASI (AUD$)

Savings (AUD$)

ASI as a % of Savings as a Average ASI Average Average of Project % of Project (AUD$) of ASI Savings Budget Budget 1.02% 0.24% 0.59% 0.90% 0.59% 1.49% 0.98% 1.48% 4.15% 1.38%

PJ1 1,021,126 1,491,654 PJ2 1,141,132 4,795,862 PJ3 1,271,660 3,176,859 PJ4 627,018 2,908,417 PJ5 824,897 1,937,445

977,167

0.67%

1.90%

The saving is three times higher than the ASI.

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