Abstract: Peace is probably as old as humanity and it is our ultimate goal. There is no way to peace, peace is the only way. Peace movement is a significant tool for establishing peace in all over the world and it is very much essential concern in peace studies. Peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war and tries to create positive peace such as social justice, human rights, democracy, protect environment, eradication of poverty, removing illiteracy, refugee settlement and so on.
After the bloodshed and destruction of World War II UN was established. Main purpose of the United Nations is to maintain international peace and security, to strengthen universal peace and to achieve international co-operation in solving international problems. The United Nation was created to be a comprehensive organization not only in terms of its membership, but also interims of wideness of its competencies. Each aspect of its works peace keeping, human rights, development cooperation, and environmental protection and so on will be the search for cooperative solutions for economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problem, and the encouragement of behavior that accords with the principle of international law.
The main purpose of this article to focus the UN role in peace movement and it covered all the initiatives of United Nations for establishing peace in all over the world through various peace movements. Firstly this paper paying attention on various organs of united nations activities such as Security council : issues of war and peace ,General assembly : the main parliamentary , budget and decision making organ, Economic and social council : quality of life worldwide, International court of justice: adjudication of international legal disputes, General Assembly First Committee (Disarmament and International Security) ,General Assembly Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization) ,Peace building Commission, Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force, Disarmament Commission, Conference on Disarmament, Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space(www. un. org). Beside these issues, peace movement is accelerated by the UN subsidiary organizations, such as- the UNDP, the FAO, the UNFPA, the UNICEF, the WHO and so many so on.
A large share of this article is engaged by several case studies of the UN peace movements in different parts of 2 the sphere. These case studies are selected in region basis and their degrees of magnitude have tried to show the achievement of the United Nations in case of peace movement and the UN has also drawn criticism for perceived failures. Introduction: Today we face a world almost infinite promise and or potentially terminal destruction. But peace is the ultimate goal of all human being. The idea of world peace is, in itself, a relatively recent idea. Not so long ago, all over the world every generation had had “its” war.
World War I took the lives of more than 9 million people, killing between 20% to 25% of the male population of France and Germany. As for World War II, 55 million people died, including 6 million Jews in the Nazi concentration camps. Faced with the largest catastrophes in human history, men and women around the planet began to dream of a better, peaceful world. After the bloodshed and destruction of World War II, the victorious Allied states pledged that history would not repeat itself and, toward that end, agreed to establish a new global organization that would be set up with the goal of preserving peace among nations.
On October 24, 1945, 51 States ratified the United Nations Charter with the hope of freeing our world from the possibility of war. The UN was thus created and equipped with instruments that its predecessor lacked. The UN established several programs intended to reduce, as much as possible, all the factors leading to outbreaks in conflicts. These programs did not only focus on peace keepers, who intervene after a conflict has erupted, but also on economic and social development, human rights, and the struggle to end world poverty and hunger.
Indeed, all of these United Nations programs contribute directly or indirectly to the peace movement and thus to peace on earth. It is certainly true that, in the last 50 years, not everyone in the world has known peace, but it is gradually gaining ground. The dream of peace in the world is becoming less and less utopian and more and more attainable. United Nations is contributing in peace movement through its various activities such as preventive diplomacy, peace keeping mission, peace building measures, peace making process, human rights and humanitarian interventions ,social and economical development process.
Rise of United Nations initiated a great transformation in peace movements. In this paper I have tried to focus peace movement shortly and the role of United Nations in peace movement comprehensively. 3 I think the United Nations cannot, and was never intended to solve all of the problems of international community. However it is the place where we can best hope to avoid the worst of war and establishment of world peace. Peace movement: A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of achieving world peace.
Means to achieve these ends include advocacy of pacifism, non-violent resistance, diplomacy, boycotts, moral purchasing, and supporting anti-war political candidates, creating Open Government and Transparency tools, demonstrations, and National political lobbying groups to create legislation. (www. wikipedia. com) Pope John Paul II said about peace movement “War is defeat for humanity. Only in peace and through peace can respect for human dignity and its inalienable rights be guaranteed. ” [Pope John Paul II, world day of peace, January 1. 2000].
Pope John Paul II also said about peace movement, “It is only through a conscious choice and through a deliberate policy that humanity can survive. ” [Approach to peace, 2000, Page 227] Peace movements have tended to coalesce around goals related to preventing or stopping specific wars, abolishing certain weapons or weapons systems, or opposing military conscription. Peace movements have always had a pacifist dimension, opposing all war. They have also had a radical, socialist, or liberal dimension that critiqued the links of capitalism to imperialism and militarism. Often there was a commitment to refusing to participate in specific wars.
The political left—anarchist, syndicalism, social democrat, Marxist—has often taken antiwar and antimilitarist stances, often in alliance with more traditional peace groups. Peace movement is a social movement. In sense of positive peace it covers human rights, democracy, social justice, human security, and social, economic and political development. Types of peace movement: 4 There are various types of peace movement such as Religious pacifism, liberal internationalism, anti conscription, socialist internationalism, feminist anti militarism, ecological pacifism, communist internationalism, nuclear pacifism.
Peace movements may be divided into three categories ?Movement to eliminate war in general ?movement to stop particular aspects of war ?Movement to stop particular war (David P. Barash, Charles P. Webel:2002) Transformation of peace movement: ?In 19th century Peace Movement was viewed as “Peace Movement is efforts to utter the foreign and military policy of government and is organized by private citizen usually in constitutionally governed nation”. ?
Wikipedia says “A Peace Movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. …….. advocacy of pacifism, non-violent resistance, diplomacy, boycotts, moral purchasing, and supporting anti-war political candidates, creating Open Government and Transparency tools, demonstrations, and National political lobbying groups to create legislation…….. the common goal of peace and humane sustainability”. ?
The Peace movement is primarily characterized by a belief that humans should not wage war on each other or engage in violent ethnic cleansings over language, race or natural resources or ethical conflict over religion or ideology. Long-term opponents of war preparations are primarily characterized by a belief that military power is not the equivalent of justice. ?The more mainstream technology critics such as the Green parties, Greenpeace and the ecology movement they are part of. ?In the 20th century, it is one of several movements that led to the formation of Green Party political associations in many democratic countries. ?
The peace movement has a very strong influence in some countries’ green parties, such as in Germany, perhaps reflecting that country’s negative experiences with militarism in the 20th century. Objectives and purposes of the Peace movement: 5 ?To create the consciousness of world peace ?To faster friendship and harmony among the people ?To achieve disarmament and total elimination of all biological, chemical and nuclear weapons in the entire world. ?To purify and maintain a clean and ecological balanced environment ?To alleviate poverty and hunger ?To improve the healthy, educated and living conditions of peace on earth. ?To promote and protect human rights. ?To assure international justice and universal human rights by world government. What is the United Nations?
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization or gathering of sovereign states, founded in the closing days of the Second World War. Its Charter was adopted and signed on 26 June 1945 by 51 founding members. Of these, 4 were from Africa (Ethiopia, Egypt, Liberia and South Africa). Membership to the United Nations is open to all peace-loving nations that accept the principles and obligations set out in its Charter. With the surge in decolonization, many states gained their independence and admission to the UN; and as a result membership rose from 51 in 1945 to 192 in 2010. The United Nations System.
The UN is a three-tiered system of independent inter-governmental organizations, related uniquely with each other. Allow me to briefly sketch the interdependent parts of the United Nations. It has six (6) principal organs. . 6 Figure: United Nations system Purposes’ and principles of UN: We can easily guess the inspiration of peace movement of UN through its purposes and principles. The purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are: ?To maintain international peace and security ?
To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self determination of peoples: ?To cooperate in solving international economic , social,, culture and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; ?To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these common ends. The United Nations acts in accordance with the following principles: ?It is based on the sovereign equality of all as members; ?All members are to fulfills in good faith their charter obligations; they are settle their international disputes by peaceful means and without enduring international peace and security and justice;
?They are to refrain from the threat or use of force against any other state ; 7 ?They are to give the United nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the charter and shall not assist states against which the United nations is taking preventive or enforcement action; ?Nothing in the charter is to authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state. Characteristics of UN peace movement: ?United Nations works for international peace and security ?It cooperates in solving international economic, social ,cultural and humanitarian problems?
United Nations develops friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights ?It creates the consciousness of world peace ?It works for promoting and protecting human rights in all over the world ?United Nations can take preventive measures and enforcement action for peace ?United Nations covers whole objectives and purposes of peace movement, from antiwar movement to sustainable and durable peace process. ?It works for international justice ?United nations peace movement is a collective action plan and efforts of all member states ?Every initiatives of UN somehow is involved in peace process?
United Nations has a great acceptance in all over the world and it can take actions easily than others. Dissimilarity of UN peace movement from others organization: •It is a universal organization •It has vast work of actions •It involves more than190 states •UN not only works for anti war but also works for peaceful settlements and post conflict situation. • Only UN can use force for peace process •UN has straightforward access in all over the world but others organizations cannot get this. •UN and its various specialized organ work effectively of their own sectors for peace such as UNESCO, UNICE, UNDP, UNHCR, FAO, WHO etc.
•Others organization works for single issues but UN covers huge areas of peace such as Millennium Development Goals, human rights, anti war movements, peaceful settlements etc •Only United Nations uses the collective security approach for establishing peace and minimizing war. •Only UN uses peacemaking, peace keeping and peace building process. 8 •UN secretary general and various organs won noble peace prizes, it proves the specialty of UN incase of peace movement. •The UN is the largest multilateral contributor to post-conflict stabilization worldwide.
Only the United States deploys more military personnel to the field than the United Nations. •There are almost 110,000 serving on 20 peace operations led by the UN Departments of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Field Support (DFS) on four continents directly impacting the lives of hundreds of millions of people. •The UN does not have its own military force; it depends on contributions from Member States. As of 31 March 2008, 118 countries contributed military and police personnel to UN peacekeeping.
•More than 77,000 of those serving were troops and military observers and about 11,000 were police personnel. In addition, there were more than 5,000 international civilian personnel, 12,000 local civilian staff and some 2,000 UN Volunteers from over 160 nations. •Women are increasingly performing key leadership functions in peacekeeping: between February 2007 and January 2008, there was an increase of over 40% of women serving in peacekeeping UN approaches to preventing and managing conflicts 9 Figure: Approaches of UN peace movement Collective security- theory and practice where by all states thwart an aggressor state by joining together against the aggressor.
Attempts to prevent the outbreak of conflict, but if an attack occurs, aggressor is met with force. Preventive diplomacy-practice of engaging in diplomatic intervention before the outbreak of conflict and monitoring hot spots through the use of peace keeping forces or surveillance technology. Peaceful settlement- various techniques by which disputes are settled, such as adjudication, arbitration, mediation, conciliation and good officers. Peacemaking – efforts of bring parties to agreement. Peacekeeping – the use of multilateral forces to achieve several, different objectives: observation of truce and ceasefire lines; separation of forces, promotion of law and order; provision of humanitarian aid and intervention.
Peace building- post conflict activities to strengthen and preserve peace, such as development aid , civilian administration and human rights and election monitoring. 10 Enforcement measures – direct actions taken to ensure compliance with UN measures, such as imposition of economic sanctions, banning of air flights or communications, and use of force. Arms control and Disarmament- efforts to persuade states to limit reduce or eliminate specific types of weapons.
[Source- Based on discussion in Mingst and karns, 2000, p 76] Role of Security Council in peace movement: Security Council plays a key role in peace movement in all over the world. Collective security which is very much important for peace movement was adopted by Security Council. The UN’s role in international collective security is defined by the UN Charter, which gives the Security Council the power to: •Investigate any situation threatening international peace; •Recommend procedures for peaceful resolution of a dispute;
•Call upon other member nations to completely or partially interrupt economic relations as well as sea, air, postal, and radio communications, or to sever diplomatic relations; •Enforce its decisions militarily, or by any means necessary; •Avoid conflict and maintain focus on cooperation. 11 Economic and Social Council and peace movement: The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. This council set down Millennium Development Goals which are very much important for Social and economic development and it is a great effort of UN peace movement in all over the world.
Figure: Millennium Development Goals International court of justice: Its purpose is to adjudicate disputes among states. The court has heard cases related to war crimes, illegal state interference and ethnic cleansing, among others, and continues to hear cases . (http://www. icj-cij. org/court/index. )International court of justice is playing a good role for promoting justice in all over the world. Such as ?International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) ?International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) ?Special Court for Sierra Leone ?Extraordinary Chambers in the Court of Cambodia 12 ?
Special Tribunal for Lebanon Human rights and humanitarian assistance: The pursuit of human rights was a central reason for creating the UN. The UN Charter obliges all member nations to promote “universal respect for, and observance of, human rights” and to take “joint and separate action” to that end. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, though not legally binding, was adopted by the General Assembly in 1948 as a common standard of achievement for all. The Assembly regularly takes up human rights issues. The purpose of the United Nations Human Rights Council, established in 2006, is to address human rights violations.
The Council is the successor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, which was often criticized for the high-profile positions it gave to member states that did not guarantee the human rights of their own citizens. (http://www. nytimes. com/2006/02/26/opinion/26sun2. html) UN Bodies for human rights 13 A common framework of action: It is possible to find out a common framework action in the UN operations for peace. This figure shows how actions of the UN take place one after another.
14 The United Nations and peacemaking : The term “peacemaking” is used in several different ways. According to the UN, peacemaking is “action to bring hostile parties to agreement, essentially through such peaceful means as those foreseen in Chapter VI of the Charter of the United Nations; Pacific Settlement of Disputes. (“http://www. un. org/Docs/SG/agpeace. html)In this sense, peacemaking is the diplomatic effort intended to move a violent conflict into nonviolent dialogue, United Nations peacemaking is an extension of the parties’ own efforts to manage their conflict. When they cannot, the parties, the Security Council or the General Assembly may call upon the United Nations Secretary General to exercises his “Good Offices” to facilitate the resolution of the conflict.
The Secretary General may also undertake independent peacemaking initiatives by offering his “Good Offices” to parties to resolve the conflict in a peaceful way. In An Agenda for Peace, former United Nations Secretary General Boutros-Boutros Ghali defined peacemaking as “action to bring hostile parties to agreement, essentially through such peaceful (means as those foreseen in Chapter VI of the Charter of the United Nations; Pacific Settlement of Disputes. ” These actions are carried out during a conflict, violent or latent.
They entail the diplomatic process of brokering an end to conflict, principally through the use of mediation and negotiation skills. United Nations Peacemaking excludes the use of force, unless imposed action is taken by the Security Council to facilitate the peacemaking process. [www. un. org/peacemaker) The United Nations and Peacekeeping: Keeping the Peace, the UN Mission The UN Security Council is the main organization of the United Nations dedicated to the resolution of conflicts and peacekeeping. Peacekeeping missions allow the Security Council to watch over the cease-fire and participate in the creation of conditions for peace.
On a few rare occasions, the Security Council has authorized member States to use all the necessary means to keep the peace, including collective military action. 15 General Indar Jit Rktye, the former president of the International Peace Academy who has participated in several peacekeeping missions, defines peace keeping as being “the prevention, limitation, moderation and cessation of hostilities between or within States due to the intervention of a third party, which is organized and directed at the international level and which calls upon military, police and civilian personnel to restore peace.
” United Nations Peacekeeping System Hierarchy Source : georgipolitov. tripod. com/ The United Nations and Peace building: Peace building is defined as the medium to long term process of rebuilding war affected communities through identifying and supporting structure to consolidate peace in order to avoid a relapse into conflict peace building currently includes the process of rebuilding the political, security, social and economic dimensions of societies emerging from conflict. this includes addressing the root causes of conflicts and promoting social and economic justice, as well as putting in place political structure of governance and rule of the law in order to consolidate reconciliation, reconstruction and development.
Peace building further involves demobilization, disarmament and reintegration, as well as security sector reform. It is critical to ensure the UN commitment to peace building in Africa since there are currently ten key war affected and post conflict countries on the continent including Angol,Burundi cote d’Ivorie,the DRC,Liberia, Mozambique,Sierra Leon Sudan and western sahara. 16 17 The map following map is a of all the current UN mission: 18.
The United Nations Peace building Fund (PBF) which promotes peace movement: The Peace building Fund is a multi-year standing trust fund for post-conflict peace building, established in 2006 by the Secretary General at the request of the General Assembly with an initial funding target of $250 million. The fund was established out of the recognition that among the impediments to successful peace building is the scarcity of resources, most notably financial resources. The fund aims therefore to extend critical support during the early stages of a peace process. 19 Country Budget Purposes Burundi US$ 26,883,000.
Burundi Government Peace building Fund priority plan, namely governance, the security sector, justice and human rights, and land issues. Sierra Leone US$ 15,982,577 good governance, security and justice sector reform, youth employment and empowerment, and capacity-building Cote d’Ivoire US$ 700,000 build confidence between ex-belligerents of the Ivorian conflict and contribute to the implementation of the Ouagadougou Political Agreement, leading to the organization of free and fair elections Central African Republic US$ 801,975 to support political dialogue, including a period of mediation by international facilitators, between the Government, civil society members, opposition political parties and armed opposition groups Source : http://www. unpbf. org.
Expenditures for PKOs also have increased dramatically as depicted in Figure 1 Moreover, many operations have become multidimensional to include PK, peace enforcement (PE), support of elections, and humanitarian aid. The type of conflict also has changed – intra-state conflicts with transnational effects, such as the conflicts in Bosnia and Rwanda 20 Source: georgipolitov. tripod. com The Other UN Organizations That Contribute to Peace : There are other UN organizations that help promote a culture of peace and this is very much important for peace movement to bring peace in all over the world. ?
UNICEF, the United Nations Children’s Fund (www. unicef. org), helps to protect the rights of children. 21 ?UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund (www. unfpa. org), also helps to promote a culture of peace ?WHO, the World Health Organization (www. who. int), promotes scientific cooperation in health matters, ? FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (www. fao. org), which sets up programs to help foster greater agricultural productivity,?
UNESCO designated as Focal Point which are very much important for peace movement in all over the world. Eight action areas of UNESCO which are very much significant for UN peace movement: ?Fostering a culture of peace ?Promoting sustainable economic and social development. . ?Promoting respect for all human rights by distributing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ?Ensuring equality between women and men ?Fostering democratic participation by. ?Advancing understanding, tolerance and solidarity ?Supporting participatory communication and the free flow of information and knowledge ?Promoting international peace and security
All of these UN programs are attempting, with the means that are available to them, to prevent conflicts and have a world that is free of violence. However, it will be some time before we reach this enviable state on our planet. This being true, the UN will have to continue to separate belligerents by intervening through peacekeeping missions. The UN peace agreements: The UN actively participated in different peace agreements between or among contending parties or nations. Actually the UN hardly a party of any accord but everywhere its key role is to facilitate the conflicting parties so that they can reach in an agreement and can be able to implement the agreement.
As study shows two thirds of world conflicts, at one stage, or another have come to concern of the UN, some conflicts have actually ended through a decision in the SC. This is rare, but it was way the Iran-Iraq War was terminated (Wallensteen: 2002). Through some other ways like mediation, negotiation, SG’s good office agreements came into reality in the past. Peace agreements facilitated by the UN have concluded many conflicts. It is necessary to say, that the UN and its subsidiary organizations cooperate actively with other organizations those who are also parties.
To settle Rwanda and Burundi conflict the UN cooperated with African Union and in Balkan conflict the UN cooperated actively with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Commission (EC). 22 Individual initiative of Secretary General: The role of the Secretary General has grown with the passage of time and the office has now become the focus of multilateral diplomacy to resolve disputes among states. ?Hammarskjold’s efforts eliminate danger of war between the US and China in the 50s. ?
U Thant’s intervention prevented full scale war between the US and the Soviet Union in 1962 on Cuba ?The efforts of Prewz de Cueller scaled down the Falkland’s War in 1982 ?Kofi Anan’s diplomatic efforts averted a crisis between the US and Iraq in 1998 in inspection of sites in Iraq relating to weapons of mass destruction. He proposed a number of priority areas in his Millennium Report ?Freedom from want ?
Freedom from fear and ?Sustainable future ?Boutros Boutros Ghali’s agenda for peace in 1992 ?19 January 2010 – The Security Council backed Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s call to increase the overall force levels of the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Haiti to support the immediate recovery, reconstruction and stability efforts following devastating earthquake. Following his visit to the capital, Port-au-Prince, Mr.
Ban asked the Council for an additional 1,500 police officers and 2,000 troops to reinforce the mission, known as MINUSTAH, to augment its 9,000 uniformed personnel already on the ground. Noble Peace Prize: Achievement of UN in peace movement: Both the organizations of the United Nations and staffs specially the Secretary General gained noble peace prize. ?In 1965 United Nations Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF) obtained noble prize for its contribution to build a safer world for children.
In 1969 International Labor Organization gained Noble prize in peace for its active contribution to establish dignity of labor and to protect laborers rights all over the world. ? In 1981 United Nations High Commission for refugees awarded by noble peace prize for its significant humanitarian assistance to refugee and internally displaced people. ?In 1988 United Nations Peacekeeping Forces received noble peace prize for its role in peace establishment in different parts of the world. ?At last in 2001, United Nations and SG Kofi Anan awarded with noble peace prize.
UNITED NATIONS ACTIONS FOR PEACE IN VARIOUS REGIONS OF THE WORLD A FEW CASE STUDIES: 23 The UN role in Haiti A military coup dislodged the legitimate government of president Jean Bernard Aristide in 1991. President fled the country. In 1993 the UN under Chapter vii decided to restore the legitimate government by “all possible means”. The US then landed troops and restored the Aristide government. Thereafter the UN sent peace keeping troops to take over from the US forces. The UN continued its programs to build up a new police force and a small army after election in 1996 in Haiti, the UN ended its peace keeping mission in 1997.
The UN again has been involved in peace keeping mission in the country since 2004. (Harun ur Rashid,2005) After 2004, through resolution 1529 the SC authorized the immediate deployment of Multinational Interim Force (MIF). Under the SC resolution 1542, United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) established. It is working now for the positive change in political environment in Haiti (UN: 2008). Since June 2004 to December 2008 strength of MINUSTAH was- troops- 7,036; police- 2,053; international civilian- 492;