The only worth leader of the mughals was Babur and Akbar the great. All the others were inefficient. The empire started gradually detoriating after Akbar’s death. His immediate sucessor the infactuated Jahangir was only interested in being on the throne. He handed the goverment to the persians who did not introduce any new reforms or tried to improve the military power.
Coming from a humble lineage not a royal family the Persians were more interested in swindling the imperial treasury and retaining power rather than improving technology and improving the naval base(throughout Akbars reign always gun manufacturing and military training was going on, which was not even mentioned in Jahangirs memoir). Akbar fully established the mughal dynasty,introduced reforms,devoloped friendly relation with all races and religion in India and handed over a very stable goverment to his son..
His immediate suceessor who had no threat from any foriegn power,if he was not lazy could have easily continued the work of his ancestors and devoloped the empire. The Persians were more interested in spending the imperial treasury only for architectural work and gaining fame through it. A work like architecture,painting,perfume making,fashion designing etc which was a side job in the first three great mughal period was given prime importance and only carried on.
The only mistake Akbar committed was the blind affection he showed towards his worthless son. If he had kept Khushrao on the throne he should hv set an example that a generation can be skipped for worthy people to be placed in the throne. Naturally Khusarao should have been interested in devoloping the mughal dynasty rather than swindling the imperial treasury. After that none of his sucessors were interested in the dynasty. All of them were self centered.
Shahjahan once he lost Kandar just settled happily in the harem with the huge treasury already accumulated and started constructing Taj mahal for his wife(very much influenced by the Persians in architectural work to gain fame-as a small boy he was with them) using the imperial treasury. Now Indians may not criticise him thinking he had given a wonder of the world to India. But one should think what he did for the common people. He was using the public treasury on a single lady. He was overtaxing the peasants to meet the increasing demand of the TajMahal.
Is it possible if it was a democratic country. Naturally normal man should have hated the mughal goverment. The way he got the throne was also ruthless. Infact the war of sucession was between a persian lady and her brother and not between the mughal blood(,shame on the mughals). Shahjahan was influenced in a bad way by Asaf khan who was not a mughal blood and was the main person to execute all the mughal princes who was against Shahjahan. This should have had a bad impact on Aurangazeb who was held as a hostage by the persian for a year when he was 8 years.
He turned to become a ruthless person with no affection towards his own family members(atleast Shahjahan influencd by Asaf khan killed his stepbrothers). Such a person how will he treat his subjects. Aurangazeb again was interested only in sustaining his throne. He was no doubt a able warrior like Akbar,but was not diplomatic, his policies were wrong. He had no morality,his brought up was bad(a infactuated grandfather and a father who was very partial towards Dara). He trusted noboby. He was a biogoted muslim.
He was psychic person interested only in holy war and conversion. He was not bothered in giving a good successor to his dynasty. All his able sons were crushed. Only his son and grandson who shut there mouth and were in the harem listening to him were allowed to live(they were no threat to his throne). Then naturally his sucessors will be weak,like the one behind Lal Kunwar. He devoloped hostile relation with almost all the races and religion in India. He made the Marathas hostile,a move opposite to Akbar.
If Akbar was present he should have made friendship with Shivaji when he came to Aurangazeb court either by matrimonial alliance or some other means. He should have used them to check the naval growth of the British. Instead Aurangazeb stayed in Deccan and allowed the British to grow in India. His northern front was again invaded by Persians. The fight with the sikh was mainly responsible for it. Again Rajputs,who were good warrior were made hostile by his policies and reintroduction of the jizza tax.
He could very well use all these power to capture the deccan rather than him staying for 20 years in deccan. Akbar was the one who really established the dynasty,he was very much aware of the difficulties in doing it,he knows the value of it. He tried his best to improve the technical aspect of military. He was trying to control the growing power of the portugese along the coastal line. He checked corruption among his officers. None of his officers were able to accumulate wealth like the persians of his sucessors. THE POWERFULL BRITISH:
In the begining of Jhangirs reign he was against granting priveldge to the east india company(trying to follow the foot steps of his father). Once he was under the influence of the persians who were greedy for money and wanted to do vigorous trading to earn money literally forced him to sign the treaty with the east india company which made us a slaves to the British who literally took all our wealth out of out country and made our nation poor(atleast mughals were nomads who couldnt shift our wealth out of India,they were just using it for there pleasure and family)
SEED FOR THE DECLINE OF MUGHAL EMPIRE . A infactauted jahangir,a wife centered Shahjahan,a biogoted Aurangazeb,all born with a golden spoon will not understand the hardship undertaken by thier ancestors to develop the dynasty. The persians were sowing the seed for the downfall of the mughal dynasty. The dynasty lasted for 100 years after Akbar for the stable empire he devoloped. Mahabat khan a commander who captured jahangir and kept him as a hostage for 6mths was able to rule the country in peace during this period.
Then why not the useless Jahangir under the influence of persians run the empire without any improvment,just introducing the detoriation of mughal dynasty. Why keep blaming the sucessors of Aurangazeb when almost a fully damaged empire was handed to them,that to when they were in there 60’s and no proper guidance or training given to them(Akbar recieved good knowledge and training from Humayun and Bairam khan. ).
Aurangazeb should have atleast skipped generations and selected an able sucessor. The resouces were drained by the elaboarate architectural work and unnecessary fruitless war done by the last three great mughal before handing over to the later mughals who were trained only to live a silent luxurious life in the harem to avoid imprisonment by Aurangazeb(Aurangazeb had a separate prison to confine his own sons and grandson,if they were capable and revolted against his wrong policies).
Mughals were also very unlucky for all the able leaders were killed in war of sucession like Murad(though a drunker an able warrior,who literally sucided himself due to the death of his son rustum) Khushrao and Dara,both who were tolerant person with no bad qualities,very much liked by the public and worthy to be a king. It is heart throbbing to see thier descendants begging to have a livehood.
To analyse the downfall of the mughal dynasty(let it be a historian or a layman)should read about the mughals right from Babur till the end of later mughals(the amount of hardship and luxury each one of them had) with understanding passion and interest and come to a conclusion instead of blaming the later mughals only. By SITAPALAMU UJAIN.