In this method, the solid concrete panels are cast in moulds on a level surface (usually a smooth steel base) in quality-controlled factories away from the building site. The panels are then left to cure to the appropriate level of strength. Once cured, they are stripped from the moulds, lifted into storage areas, and transported to the site only when they’re needed. The concrete panels are installed with a mobile crane, which lifts the panels from the transport trailers directly into their final positions.
The panels can be temporarily braced until a sufficient number are installed to form a self-supporting braced structure. Panel thicknesses usually range from 150 mm to 250 mm. Name of Manufacture and designer : Precast concrete wall panels, Abbey, Westkon Precast Concrete Material used : Crushed aggregrate, steel reinforcing fabric,Concrete- cement sand and water Production method and equipement used Image of product manufactured Plotting the wall element The designers / Draftsperson draw all precast elements from the manufacture using the state of the art facility which is similar to AutoCAD.
the engineers are then to check all the drawings and design calculations once that has been done the work is marked approved and sent to the host computer of the factory. The electronic information describing the 3d model received by the factory and sent electronically to the plotting station each concrete element is marketed out on the steel palette. This stage includes as well includes the panel shape, any cut outs and any cast in items such as of the electrical boxes and conduits. Magnetic shelters are then sent to a clean machine to ensure of a high quality tolerances on edge of the panels.
Moulding & Placing electric/water installation The shelters are then places along the plotted lines and the electrical boxes or any of the cast in items are glued onto the steel palette. The shelters and boxes are then coated the a realise oil and any small joints are sealed. Inserting reinforcing The reinforcement cover spaces are placed . the palette is then moved along to where the reinforcing is cut bent and placed accurately on the cover spaces , any additional steel reinforcing is added then the lattes girders are placed as well once all is complete the steel is tied and the listings hooks are fitted.
Any conduits or cast in items are also placed at this stage. Plastic coated steel rockets are placed to specified centre integrals to ensure the two concrete skin walls are kept evenly apart to the required thickness. Concrete filling The concrete is then ordered by the operator from the fully operated batching plant. (The concrete is made to the specific requirements by the Australian standards). Vibration and Rotation Storing the walls PART 3 Buildings Defects Introduction A defect in an older building may also be caused by lack of adequate maintenance.
General maintenance items, such as re- bedding and re-pointing of roof hip and ridge tiles, repainting, normal wear and tear as well as ageing are not a defect. Typical cracks to brickwork and contours of timber floors affected by clay soil movement is not structural and therefore not a defect. It is not always the weather that affects the deterioration of a building. Sometimes, life itself takes a toll on a building, depending on the area it was built in and the type of material used in construction. Plants and plant roots, ivy, birds and microorganisms have been known to aid in the decay of buildings.
Microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi and algae, cause the most damage as they attack carbonate and silicate minerals with acid and other chemicals. These minerals are found in certain kinds of stone. A professional inspection and report will not only provide accurate information on defects, as well as maintenance items that require attention so that remedial works are undertaken to a suitable standard. DEFECT No. 1 # Timber Location:> Docklands Defect : Type> Weathering Defect occurred: > Decayed timber window sill Description: * The timber may or may not have been treated/sealed and the painted with the correct paint.
This can lead to the adverse weather conditions effecting the timber – expansion, corrosion, pollution and warping, lack of maintenance All of these factors can lead to the paint cracking, opening the timbers grain to exposure and being moist. * The Rot in the timber sill has caused decay, which has allowed fungi/mould cultures and insects to feed off of the exposed timber. The elevated moisture content has made the timber break down at an accelerated rate, and hence – easier to feed off of. Solution : Exposed to rain, snow and other elements, an outdoor sill or finish sill is at the base of a window and is vulnerable to wear and decay.
A finish sill occupies angled slots in the side jambs that incline 15 degrees for drainage. Make simple repairs to the sill by scraping away the damage, removing the rot and replacing the wood. Replace an extremely rotted sill with commercial sill stock. An interior sill or stool is less likely to rot; however, it is vulnerable to decay that seeps into the base from the outside. Note : Damp, rotted wood should be completely replaced, but cracked or weathered sills can be repaired with spackle or resin. DEFECT No. 2 # Brick Wall Location:> Cnr Glenferrie rd and Bowen street, Hawthorne Defect : Type> Foundation
Defect occurred: > splitting of brick wall > No weep-holes or blocked. Differential movement over openings not allowed for Description: * The brick veneer wall has split due to unstable foundation that caused by either from the soils moisture content (high ground water/drought)or excessive movement in the soil. * The bond courses has been broken and loosened the connections between the veneer to the underlying structure of the unreinforced concrete strip footing. * The brick surface loss (surface spalling and loss of the hard glazed finish) that occurred due to weathering, water and salt exposure.