The development of the industrial revolution, with the changes introduced in the economy, will cause a change in the model of existing social organization.
With Adam Smith and his most important book “The Wealth of nations”, the LIBERALISM was introduced.
The changes in this philosophy were:* A country’s wealth lay in the work* The market flows according to the “law of supply and demand” * The State should not intervene in the economy* Defends the private property
This new idology although promotes the CAPITALISM that is characterized by: * Private ownership of the means of production* Wage-based labour* The distribution of goods are determined by competition in a free market * Increased the welfare of society, although with great inequalitiesTHE SOCIAL SHIFT
The Liberalism and the Capitalism had consequences in the model of the society during the XIX century. The pre-industrial STRATIFIED SOCIETY change to a CLASS SOCIETY.
Where progressively disappear the privileges. So the money gives the position and the mobility is possible (ascending or descending in the social scale).
As a result, 3 social classes appeared:
THE UPPER CLASS
The most important one here, was the HAUTE BOURGEOISIE that obtained social and economic power of big business with introduction of the capitalist economic system.
The bourgeoisie were enriched with the benefits generated by the industrial and commercial activity. It has also achieved political power in the revolutionary movements of the 19th century.
In this scenario, the bourgeoisie ascend to the established ARISTOCRACY and their social privilege situation (was mainly based on wealth and not on the bloodline).
They are owners of factories, banks and other industries. The bourgeoisie are interested only in accumulating more and more profits and care nothing about the conditions of the common worker.
THE MIDDLE CLASS
Contituted by the MIDDLE AND LOW BOURGEOISIE were people who fall socio-economically between the lower and upper clases: owned small business, employees and officers..
THE LOWER CLASS
THE PROLETARIAT is the class of a capitalist society that does not have ownership of the means of production and the only purpose of subsistence is to sell their labour power for a wage or salary.
As a result of the agricultural revolution and the growth of population, there was a mass exodus of peasants to the cities, the old farmer became industrial worker.
The industrial city increased its population as a consequence of naturalgrowth and the arrival of this new social class.
They had harsh living and working conditions:* They live in enormous overcrowded suburbs* Working from twelve to fourteen hours a day, it was common to work and live in the same place. * During this period, the child-labour was allowed.* And the salaries for women and children were two and three times lower than for men.
THE SOCIAL ISSUE
With the INDUSTRIALIZATION, the population grows because of the increased welfare. But with the PROLETARIAT GROWTH started the INITIAL PROBLEMS like low-salaries and insanity conditions of living. These sequence of events had the WORKERS REACTION result.