Restoration of China

I. The restoration of centralized imperial rule in China A. The Sui dynasty (589-618 C. E. ) 1. After the Han dynasty, turmoil lasted for more than 350 years 2. Reunification by Yang Jian in 589 3. The rule of the Sui a. Construction of palaces and granaries; repairing the Great Wall b. Military expeditions in central Asia and Korea c. High taxes and compulsory labor services 4. The Grand Canal integrated economies of north and south 5. The fall of the Sui d. High taxes and forced labor generated hostility among the people e. Military reverses in Korea f. Rebellions broke out in north China beginning in 610 g.

Sui Yangdi was assassinated in 618, the end of the dynasty B. The Tang dynasty (618-907 C. E. ) 6. Tang Taizong (627-649) h. A rebel leader seized Chang’an and proclaimed a new dynasty, the Tang i. Tang Taizong, the second Tang emperor; ruthless but extremely competent j. era of unusual stability and prosperity 7. Extensive networks of transportation and communications 8. Equal-field system–land allotted according to needs 9. Bureaucracy of merit through civil service exams 10. Foreign relations k. Political theory: China was the Middle Kingdom, or the center of civilization l. Tributary system became diplomatic policy 11.

Tang decline m. Casual and careless leadership led to dynastic crisis n. Rebellion of An Lushan in 755 weakened the dynasty o. The Uighurs became de facto rulers p. The equal-field system deteriorated q. A large-scale peasant rebellion led by Huang Chao lasted from 875 to 884 r. Regional military commanders gained power and were beyond control of the emperor s. The last Tang emperor abdicated his throne in 907 C. The Song dynasty (960-1279 C. E. ) 12. Song Taizu (reigned 960-976 C. E. ) was the founder 13. Song weaknesses t. Financial problems: enormous bureaucracy and high salary devoured surplus u.

Military problems: civil bureaucrats in charge of military forces v. External pressures: seminomadic Khitan and nomadic Jurchen w. The Song moved to the south, ruled south China until 1279 II. The economic development of Tang and Song China D. Agricultural development 14. Fast-ripening rice increased food supplies 15. New agricultural techniques increased production 16. Population growth: 45 to 115 million between 600 and 1200 C. E. 17. Urbanization 18. Commercialized agriculture; some regions depended on other regions for food 19. Patriarchal social structure x. Ancestor worship became more elaborate y.

Foot binding gained popularity E. Technological and industrial development 20. Porcelain (chinaware) diffused rapidly 21. Metallurgy increased ten times from ninth to twelfth centuries 22. Gunpowder was used in primitive weapons and diffused through Eurasia 23. Printing developed from wood block to movable type 24. Naval technology: “south-pointing needle”–the magnetic compass F. The emergence of a market economy 25. Financial instruments: “flying cash” (letters of credit) and paper money 26. A cosmopolitan society: communities of foreign merchants in large cities 27.

Economic surge in China promoted economic growth in the eastern hemisphere III. Cultural change in Tang and Song China G. Establishment of Buddhism 28. Foreign religions: Nestorians, Manichaeans, Zoroastrians, Muslim communities 29. Dunhuang, city on silk road, transmits Mahayana Buddhism to China 30. Buddhism in China z. Attraction: moral standards, intellectual sophistication, and salvation {. Monasteries became large landowners, helped the poor and needy |. Also posed a challenge to Chinese cultural tradition 31. Buddhism and Daoism }. Chinese monks explained Buddhist concepts in Daoist vocabulary ~.

Dharma as dao, and nirvana as wuwei . Teaching: one son in monastery would benefit whole family for ten generations 32. Chan Buddhism . A syncretic faith: Buddhism with Chinese characteristics . Chan (or Zen in Japanese) was a popular Buddhist sect 33. Hostility to Buddhism from the Daoists and Confucians 34. Persecution; it survived because of popularity H. Neo-Confucianism 35. Buddhist influence on Confucianism . Early Confucianism focused on practical issues of politics and morality . Confucians began to draw inspiration from Buddhism in areas of logic and metaphysics 36. Zhu Xi (1130-1200 C. E.

), the most prominent neo-Confucian scholar IV. Chines influence in east Asia I. Korea and Vietnam 37. The Silla dynasty of Korea (669-935 C. E. ) . Tang armies conquered much of Korea; the Silla dynasty organized resistance . Korea entered into a tributary relationship with China 38. China’s influence in Korea . Tributary embassies included Korean royal officials and scholars . The Silla kings built a new capital at Kumsong modeled on the Tang capital . Korean elite turned to neo-Confucianism; peasants turned to Chan Buddhism 39. Difference between Korea and China: aristocracy and royal houses dominated Korea 40.

China and Vietnam . Viet people adopted Chinese agriculture, schools, and thought . Tributary relationship with China . When Tang fell, Vietnam gained independence 41. Difference between Vietnam and China . Many Vietnamese retained their religious traditions . Women played more prominent roles in Vietnam than in China 42. Chinese influence in Vietnam: bureaucracy and Buddhism J. Early Japan 43. Nara Japan (710-794 C. E. ) . The earliest inhabitants of Japan were nomadic peoples from northeast Asia . Ruled by several dozen states by the middle of the first millennium C. E.

. Inspired by the Tang example, one clan claimed imperial authority over others . Built a new capital (Nara) in 710 C. E. , modeled on Chang’an . Adopted Confucianism and Buddhism, but maintained their Shinto rites 44. Heian Japan (794-1185 C. E. ) . Moved to new capital, Heian (modern Kyoto), in 794 . Japanese emperors as ceremonial figureheads and symbols of authority . Effective power in the hands of the Fujiwara family . Emperor did not rule, which explains the longevity of the imperial house . Chinese learning dominated Japanese education and political thought 45. The Tale of Genji was written by a woman, Murasaki Shikibu 46.

Decline of Heian Japan . The equal-field system began to fail . Aristocratic clans accumulated most land . Taira and Minamoto, the two most powerful clans, engaged in wars . Clan leader of Minamoto claimed title shogun, military governor; ruled in Kamakura K. Medieval Japan was a period of decentralization 47. Kamakura (1185-1333 C. E. ) and Muromachi (1336-1573 C. E. ) periods 48. The samurai . Professional warriors of provincial lords . Valued loyalty, military talent, and discipline . Observed samurai code called bushido . To preserve their honor, engaged in ritual suicide called seppuku|