Against religious minorities Human Rights in Indonesia provide that “persons have the right to worship according to their own religious belief”. The recognition of other five faiths faced official recognition by a civil registration of religious sects and denominations. Other faiths were “refused and childbirths or marriages of unrecognized faith were refused registration”. Houses of worships were likewise laid open to scrutiny as fears of rebellion exist. In previous years, “houses of worship were limited in order to reduce community observance of faith”.
These random acts of violations on the human right to religious practice and cultural observance laid the groundwork for continued conflicts. Indonesia on the other hand was prodded by the UN to refine drastic measures to address the problem and promote peace. Religious officials fearing beliefs that the Christian bloc was corrupting the Muslim community had to accept. Religious laws however in the Islamic world “laid out disparities as Islamic laws clearly violate constitutional provisions based on their religious affiliation”.
Other sects faced ridicule by many mainstream Muslims and on several occasions were attacked by mobs with some authorities in assistance. The “Ahmadiyah Islamic sect has faced violence and random acts of civil strife leading worshippers to vacate the complex” they lived in. Local authorities had encourage the sect to return to mainstream Muslim faith which the sect disregarded and hundred of followers were told to leave the village. Clashes ensued yet no arrests were ever made prompting many to question Indonesia’s conflicting methods and policies.
Yet in the last few years, religious violence had grown fewer but some areas still continue to experience sporadic bombings. Ethnic movements across the country have been limited because the Indonesian constitution provides for the prevention of persons from entering or leaving the country. Most of the ethnic groups are the common victims “where freedom is restricted even during emergencies. ” For Papuans, restrictions were heavily imposed while Acehnese were no longer issued identity card thus preventing a total of “1,167 people from leaving the county in 2006”.
Non-citizens were also barred from entry particularly in Aceh. Although racial tolerance is permitted, harassment of ethnic Chinese faced instances of discrimination. Indonesians once held violent protests against ethnic Chinese students and Chinese residents retaliated by establishing their freedom from ethnic atrocities. -Against refugees and Indigenous people Refugees cannot be “granted asylum and protection in accordance with Indonesian laws”. Although the government cooperated with UN’s protocols that gave way to asylum seekers living in the country, most came from Muslim countries.
Isolated communities labeled as indigenous belonging to tribes in Papua have faced “widespread discrimination with little respect for their land rights”. Mining and logging activities encouraged land grabbing and the poor indigents faced violence and inter- ethnic struggle. -Against Women While global laws and human rights calls in women’s rights “as a global movement, case studies in Indonesia explores the tensions despite the increasing awareness”. The local context of Indonesian culture points out how “military prostitution is enforced” while women continue to encounter struggles against domestic violence.
In Indonesia as in most parts of the world, women are not necessarily in the same league with men. Yet a vast number brutal crime perpetrators in Indonesia involved men while women are the hapless victims. Poor documentation in Indonesia belie the true plight of the womenfolk despite reports of the local press on the increasing violence against women both in number and severity. “Rape statistics remain unavailable” and in some cases, the rape act does not create a clear picture, such as marital rape.
Sentencing likewise “poses a problem even though rape is punishable by 12 years of imprisonme”. Many cases of rape were committed in Aceh. While women and children continue to report these cases and victims receive temporary shelter few perpetrators were ever convicted with the maximum penalty. The inconsistency of laws also set the reason for judicial misjudgment. While the law sets the minimum marital age for girls at 16 and 19 for men, “child laws state the children under 18 are declared children and thus expand the confusion in many provinces and states”.
Some cultures engage in the practice of genital mutilation or female circumcision was often dismissed as rituals and rites of passage. Despite knowledge of its damaging effects, a ban never brought in violators. Prostitution in a predominantly Islamic state is supposedly contrary to decency/morality. Yet “security forces participate in the running of brothels and produce shields as a racket” to supply protection for the brothels. Sexual tourism exists in the island near Singapore with child prostitution continue to thrive.