Race Relations Acts

A good job advert, while providing prospective candidates with helpful information, also helps to discourage applications from people who do not have the required qualifications for the job. The presentation of the advert is very important as it gives prospective employees a first impression of the organisation. Letter of application The title pretty much speaks for itself when describing what a letter of application is. Basically, a letter of application is a letter that an applicant would send to an organisation when interested in a job on offer.

In this case, the applicants for the part-time sales assistant would send their letters to Boots after seeing the advert for the job. Along with the letter of application the employees would send their Curriculum Vitae (CV). An example of a letter of application can be found in the appendix. Curriculum Vitae A Curriculum Vitae (CV) shows a person's achievements, hobbies, interests and past-times. A CV is a vital ingredient to recruiting the best employee – in this case the best part-time sales assistant.

Below shows an example of a CV that could be sent with the letter of application to Marks and Spencer' HRM sent by an applicant enquiring about the job of a part-time sales assistant on offer. Once Marks and Spencer' HRM have evaluated the letter of application of the applicant they can decide whether or not he/she is suitable for the job. If they are then a letter of an invitation to an interview will be sent to him. If he/she isn't then a letter of consolation is sent by Boots' HRM. But in this case let's say the applicant does qualify for an interview, this is the next stage of the recruitment process.

An example of a CV can be found in the appendix. Interviews Interviews are the most vital stage of the recruitment process for Marks and Spencer and the potential employee. This short time of contact with Marks and Spencer can give the business representatives a lot of information about how the potential employee looks, behaves, talks and basically how well he or she comes across as a person. That's why it is so important for the potential employee to dress appropriately and talk with confidence when answering any questions set to him/her by the interviewer(s).

Most people have had at least one experience of being interviewed prior to employment. Few people enjoy interviews either! Often this is because the interviewer comes across as being more interested in finding faults with you than finding out the good things. This is sometimes to see if the interviewee is sharp, intelligent and someone who can cope with pressure. Some of the interviewing techniques (used by the interviewer) will show which applicant is the most strong minded out of all the potential employees.

For example, the interviewer may decide to ask the applicant to take a message from a person on the phone pretending to be a business consultant of the company or an upset customer. This sort of technique can indicate to the interviewer how well spoken or articulate the interviewee is, how well he/she copes under pressure and whether he/she deals with the "phone call" in the appropriate manner expected by the organisations standards. The personnel department of Marks and Spencer is usually involved in interviewing, both in carrying them out and helping managers to adopt good interview practice.

By following certain guidelines, the business hopes to employ the 'right' person for the job. It also aims to carry out the interview in a way that is fair to all candidates. These guidelines might include the following: The interview should allow information to be collected from candidates, which can be used to predict whether they can perform the job. This can be done by comparing replies with the criteria that successful applicants should have. Marks and Spencer should give candidates full details about the job and the organisation. This will help them decide whether the job would suit them.

The interview should be conducted so that the candidates can say that they have had a fair hearing. The interview, has however, been criticised as not always being an effective 'tool'. Some of the main criticisms are: 1. Interviewers often decide to accept or reject a candidate within the first three or four minutes of the interview, and then spend the rest of the time finding evidence to confirm their decision. 2. Interviews seldom change the initial opinion formed by the interviewer seeing the application form and the appearance of the candidate.  

Interviewers place more stress on evidence that is unfavourable than the evidence that is favourable. 4. When the interviewers have made up their minds on the candidate very early in the interview then their behaviour betrays their decision to the candidate. 5. The problems with these criticisms are that they do not solve the problems, only identify them. No matter what other means of selection there may be, the interview is crucial. If it is thought to be unreliable, it should not be discarded. Marks and Spencer must simply make sure they carry it out properly.

Carrying out the interview There are a number of factors, which would be taken into account when carrying out the interview. The interview should be conducted around a simple plan and be based on a number of questions against which all candidates will be assessed. It is also considered good practice to prepare suitable place for the interview, such as a warm, quiet, ventilated room. The interviewer should also ensure that the candidates have a friendly reception and are informed of what is expected of them. The average interview usually takes around thirty minutes.

The interview plan organises the time to cover the important aspects in assessing applicants. The plan must be flexible enough to allow the interviewer to explore areas that may come up during the interview. Marks and Spencer can follow a simple strategy of what the interviewer should do and what the interviewer shouldn't do before and during the interview. The interviewer should always try and make the applicant comfortable by maybe asking him/her whether they had an easy journey to the building or whether they are warm enough in the interview room.

This sort of behaviour can put the interviewee at ease in order of seeing the real side of them. This is the part where Marks and Spencer' HRM will evaluate each and every one of the job applicants. It will evaluate how well the applicant spoke, dressed and came across in the job interview. Also letters of application and Curriculum Vitae's (CVs) will be evaluated on how well the applicant can write and by looking at the CV the HRM can see which applicant has the best qualifications and most ideal interests, hobbies, and past-times for the job.

Marks and Spencer would be able to tell whether the chosen candidate for the job was the correct selection by assessing whether the company's aim had been achieved. However, selection can be very costly to Marks and Spencer. For example, if Marks and Spencer were to send out application forms to candidates the cost of postage has to be paid for and Boots may have to pay for travel expenses for candidates' journeys to interviews. Staff will also have to give up time to carry out the interviews.

For example, if 10 people were interviewed for three posts by Marks and Spencer, but only one applicant was suitable, selection may not have been effective. In this case Marks and Spencer would have to re-advertise and interview other candidates as two posts would be unfilled. Marks and Spencer' Human resource department's role would be to check all stages of selection to find out where problems had arisen. For example, when short-listing, a suitable candidate may have been 'left out'. At an interview a possible candidate may have been rushed, so he/she was not given the chance to do their best.

In the appendix shows forms that Marks and Spencer would use when assessing the strengths and weaknesses of each applicant: Legal factors It is now illegal for Marks and Spencer or any other organisation to specify sex, marital status, colour, race, nationality or disability in any job advertisement. These laws were brought in by the government due to the Sex Discrimination Act (1975 and 1986), the Race Relations Act (1970), and the Disability Discrimination Act (1995). An Industrial Tribunal is available for people who feel that they have been discriminated against by any organisation, for example, during an interview.

This Industrial Tribunal can award damages if it feels that a person has a fair case of being discriminated against by an organisation. Another "Act" that can be looked upon as discrimination by an organisation is the Equal Pay Act (1970). This implies that men and women must receive equal pay if the work that they do is the same or similar. Boots have always followed the laws of the Sex, Race Relations, Equal Pay, and Disability Discrimination Act's so not to cause a confrontation between the company itself, the person(s) discriminated against and the Industrial Tribunal.

They always deploy a system where by such discrimination acts are followed. 3. 1 The function of key recruitment process The Human Resources department is usually responsible for recruiting new staff and for training them to do their job. When job vacancies arise, it draws up documents for specific purposes, organises and runs interviews. The Human Resources department has to follow certain procedures before a job can be advertised. This page will explain these different stages in detail.