Public Sphere

The public sphere has been conceived as a neutral space in society, in which media should make available information affecting the public good. “In theorizing the public sphere and the relationship between media and democracy, the importance of the principles of difference, diversity and pluralism only seem to heighten. It can be argued that the theories and concepts on which normative views of media and democracy build, have generally taken a marked pluralist or anti-essentialist turn.

Reflecting this, normative models of deliberative democracy and the public sphere have been increasingly criticized for overemphasizing rational consensus and disregarding the irreducible value pluralism of contemporary societies. Instead of a singular notion of the public sphere, public use of reason, or the common good, theorists increasingly stress the plurality of publics, politics of difference, and the complexity of ways in which the media can contribute to democracy.

” Against Naive Pluralism in media politics: On the implications of the radical-pluralist approach to the public sphere http://www. wmin. ac. uk/sshl/pdf/CSD0607Karppinnen. pdf Access to the public sphere should be equitable: Media scholars argue that the public sphere can be an ideal analytic category to study the media in democracy. Debate has been around issues of media ownership, funding, financing and government regulation and how these affect the media’s role as public spheres.

The public sphere roles do not only include “serious” educational and informational roles, but entertainment roles as well. How the public sphere functions is a reflection of the democratic function of a particular society. Media and communication has transformed into a modernized manner. It has well developed and established styles and uses, which is very different from the past. It has evolved and, in some ways, invented by men whose knowledge and powers are inconsequential compared to those of the past.

However, the progress of our techniques, the p:oficiency and definitiveness they have attained, the ideas and habits they are creating, make it undoubting that an intellectual changes are imminent in the ancient craft. Great innovations should be expected to transform the entire phase. “During long periods of history, the mode of human sense perception changes with humanity’s entire mode of existence. The manner in which human sense perception is organized, the medium in which it is accomplished, is determined not only by nature but by historical circumstances as well.

The fifth century, with its great shifts of population, saw the birth of the late Roman art industry and the Vienna genesis, and there developed not only an art different from that of antiquity but also a new kind of perception. The scholars of the Viennese school, Riegl and Wickhoff, who resisted the weight of classical tradition under which these later art forms had been buried, were the first to draw conclusions from them concerning the organization of perception at the time.

However far-reaching their insight, these scholars limited themselves to showing the significant, formal hallmark’s which characterized perception in late Roman times. “Durham and Kellner, Media and Cultural Studies: keyworks, Durham and Kellner, 2006, Blackwell Publishing, http://books. google. com/books? vid=ISBN1405132582&id=KfmTkKmEkiIC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=4Uq8sBK6HR&dq=Media+and+Cultural+Studies+by+Durham+and+Kellner&sig=b1Sp7nNL8pfyZRY7MO61tNvpBNg#PPA21,M1

Then “Postmodernism” came, numerous critics and years of intellectual debate did not hinder its expansion nor impair its impact. Despite of being coarsely contradictory and unclear, overjoyed in consumption and celebrating fixations, ignoring consistency and staying away from stability, pampering illusions and pleasure, postmodernisms is the only possible  newfangled answer to a century worn out by the rise and fall of modem ideologies, the extension of the system, and an unauthorized sense of personal responsibility and individual inability.

Modernity is a period of history established throughout production, opposed to postmodernity as a period established throughout simulations by which means models or images, like situation dramas on television simulate real families and life, or vitual-reality games simulate the real. “For Braudrillard, the relationship implicit in the modernist idea of an original and a copy becomes transposed and disrupted in the post modern era where referents and signifiers are no longer logically linked; rather, duplications represent the “real” in the postmodern world.

On Baudrillard’s definition, a “simulacrum,” a copy without an original, is manifested in Disneyland, which he discusses as a simulation of an idealized America. On his reading, Disneyland provides a hyperreal model of the United States that is more-real-than-real, generating role models, ideals, and an image of a perfect world.