Public Opinion, Socialization, Voting, and Elections

1. Public Opinion is the collective belief of citizens on a given issue or question at a given point of time. (slide 3) or viewed as politically relevant opinions held by ordinary citizens that they can express openly (in text) 2. Attitude is a preference which relates to something very specific as: -An issue (abortion, death penalty war in Iraq) -A person (Bush, Obama, Boehner, Romney) -An institution ( Fed. Reserve, Congress, Supreme Court) -An event (2008 election, 9/11, Iraq War) (slide 7) 3. ideology is set of attributes that form a general philosophy about the role of gov.

Generally we think of people as being either liberal or conservative, though in reality it’s a little more complicated than that. (slide 7) 4. A) Party (PID) is generally a person is either Democrat or Republican B) We define this as, “Generally speaking what do you consider yourself as… Democrat? or Republican? ” (slide7) 5. Over time public opinions is more stable-because in the realm of foreign policy, public opinion is less stable, especially on issues like war. It is influenced by international events. Overt time on domestic issues-public opinion is more stable (slide 4) (in text p.19)

6. The process of influence and formation of attitude ideology,party, identification is called Political Socialization. (slide12) Political socialization is the complex process which individuals become aware of politics, learn political facts, attitudes, views and opinions and form political values. (slide 13) 7. The link between political socialization and civic engagement is that the strength of our political socialization has a direct relationship with our civic involvement and engagement. (slide 13) 8. Agents of socialization are:

A) Primary- Agents interact closely and regularly with individual (ie: family, church) B) Secondary- Agents are less intimate (ie: work associates) (in text. p. 192) 9. Agents or factors of socialization are individuals, organization and institutions that facilitate and mediate the acquisition of political views, opinions and values. Primary- Family, school and church Secondary- Peers, media and leaders (slide 14) 10. A) 4 agents of socialization that influence society as a whole are: 1. The economy 2. Political events (9/11) 3. Opinions leaders 4.

Media and interest groups (slide 15) B) All of these agents affect our views over time. Depending on the issue, the timing and socio-economic/pol. climate we influenced by these agents and form opinions based on them 11. The events of 9/11 would be an example of a political event as an agent of socialization? In May 2001 not many Americans were willing to give up personal freedom prior to 9/11. October 2001-May 2006- At least 56% of Americans said ‘yes’ to giving up personal freedom (slide on 9/11 graph. I think slide 18? ) 12. Government is listed as socialization.

Gov. influences public opinion by: 1. Domesticating public opinion 2. Recognizing and defending property 3. Voting B) Public opinion plays role and affects pol. socialization by? (slide 19) 13. Efficacy-Extent to which people believe their actions affect the course of government. Political Trust- is the extent to which people believe the gov. acts in their best interest. (slide 21) 14. Public opinion cannot be measured directly. Must be accessed indirectly. Opinion polls or surveys are the primary method for estimating public sentiment. (text pp 205-207) 15.

Elite polls measure the opinion of those members of society in the elite classes only (slide 22) 16. Straw polls-19th century newspapers asked the opinion of their readers to predict outcome of a given election. (slide 22) 17. A random sample poll is method of selection that gives everyone who might be selected to participate in a poll an equal probability/chance to be included. (slide 23) 18. Sample is a subset chosen of the population from which information is gathered and analyzed to learn about the population as a whole. (slide 24) 19. Population is a group the poll/survey is to represent.

(slide 24) 20. Representative sample is a non-biased poll/survey sample in which each member of population has an equal probability of being selected/included. (slide 24) 21. Random sampling is a method of composing or selecting a sample in which member of the population has an equal chance of being selected/included in the sample. (slide 24) 22. Scientific polls work by relying on a representative sample of group being polled. *Each person in group has same probability of being selected in sample. (most national Sci. Polls include minimum of 1000 people) 23. Samples are collect by:* (only 6)*

1. In-person interviews 2. Internet polls 3. Call-in polls 4. Letter polls 5. Random dial telephone calls 6. Tracking polls (slides 27-31) 24. Tracking polls seek out to gauge changes of opinion of the same sample size over a period of time. Common during closing month of presidential elections. (slide 32) 25. Exit polls survey a sample of votes immediately after exiting voting booth to predict outcome of the election before the ballots are officially counted. (slide 32) 26. Push polls are designed to manipulate the opinions of those being polled. (slide 34) 27.

As sample error or margin of error is measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll reported as a percentage. (slide 34) 28. Senator X has approx. rating of 63% with a margin of error or +/- of 3 %. What is his level of support? Approval rating of 60-66 % (Just add and subtract 3 to 63) 29. Polls can impact public opinion by: -“Bandwagon effect”-Affects individuals’ choices-People want to back a winner. -Polls affect way media covers politics- “Horse Race Coverage” (Makes race more exciting than it actually is) -Polls affect operation of campaigns-(Politicians look for what is working.

Drop what is NOT working) (slide 37) 30. The Bandwagon effect is being influence by the majority. People want to back a winner. Also, if someone is supported above a certain level-some people decide not to fight it. (decide to agree with the popular) (slide 37) 31. Yes, politicians do pay attention to Public Opinion. (slide 37. Read end of # 29) 32. The public is generally uninformed about key aspects of government: -Only 10% know the speaker of the house name. -Only 1/3 can name 1 U. S. Supreme Court Justice -Only 50% know which party control Congress.

-Less than 50% know name of their own Congressional representative (slide 39) 33. Define framing. A frame in social theory consists of a model/a framework that individuals used to understand and respond to events. (slide 41) Framing describes way in which events are cast. Process if selecting certain aspects of reality and making them the most prominent part of communication. (text p. 345) 34. Issue ownership is when there are certain issues, which most voters associate with one party or other (slide 41) ie: (Republicans: Pro-life and want lower taxes) (Democrats: Pro-choice and social service programs).

35. Polarization is condition in which differences between parties and/or the public are so stark that disagreement breaks out, fueling attacks and controversy. (slide 42) 36. Are people politically polarized? On surface, Americans may appear to be. (Red State/Blue States) Political scientist, Morris Fiorina argues we are not as polarized as “map” may tell us. Fiorina and others argue that Americans are by and large, “Centrist. ” Divided more by rural vs. urban through red vs. blue state. (slide 45) High priority Section II: Political Parties and Voting (Chapter 8) 1.

A political party is a group of people who organize for the specific purpose of winning political office. (slide 3) 2. A) I do not think political parties are unpopular (except maybe to people from opposing party) B) Parties give voters chance to influence direction of government. (text p. 251) 3. Defining features of a political party: -Passing legislation -Doing it effectively -Winning elections (slide 4) 4. The 3 roles of political parties in the political system are: 1. Party in the electorate (General pattern of PID and behavior on election day) 2. Party in government (Writing legislation) 3.

Party as an organization (Internal structure:Fed/state/city/ county levels) (slides 6 and 7) 5. A) A party in government is writing legislation B) Party in the electorate is general patterns of voters PID on election day C) Party as an organization is the internal structure: from Federal all the way to county levels D) Parties are all linked institutions-they serve to connect citizens through government (slides 6 and 7. text p. 252) 6. We have political parties to solve mainly solve politicians’ problems thru: -Passing legislation -Doing it effectively -Winning elections (most crucial) (slide 5).

7. 1) I would say that politicians benefit most from political parties: 2) because: -The main purpose of parties is to win elections -another main purpose is to solve politicians’ problems -politicians are in control of their campaigns and campaign funds 8. A political party’s Raison d’etre is: -Win elections -Solve politicians’ problems -Pass legislation effectively (slide 5) 9. A party system is basically the number of relevant parties and the degree of fragmentation. (slide 10) 10. Relevant parties are the main political parties in the U. S. (ie: only 2: Democratic and Republican) (slide 10).

11. Brief summary of the early political parties: There was rivalry between Hamilton and Jefferson. Hamilton was head of the Federalist party. Jefferson created the Democratic-Republican party. After Jefferson defeated Adams in 1800 election-Federalists never were in control again. During Monroe’s 1st term- government seemed to function without parties at all. During his 2nd term- the Democratic-Republican party split. Jackson embraced Jefferson’s ‘commitment to the people’ and labeled party “Democrats. ” The Whig Party for a short period was opposing party to the Democrats.

During the 1800’s the Whig Party became the Republican Party. (text. pp. 252-254) 12. The electoral reform Jackson desired and pushed for was to wrest political power from the established elite. (text p. 253) 13. The slavery issue if what tore the parties apart. As a result, the Whig party disintegrated and became the Republican party. (text p. 254) 14. Parties do 7 things: 1. Provide stable alliances 2. Mobilize voters 3. Foster compromise 4. Recruit and train leaders 5. Make choice effective 6. Organize activity of government 7. Give voters cheap info. -issue ownership for each party (slide 11)

15. People decide to be Democratic or Republican based on political socialization: 2 agents: -Primary agents- Family, church and school -Secondary agents-Peers, media and leaders (text 191-194) 16. Alignment- is the identification with a party in repeated elections. (slide 14) 17. Realignment is major change of electoral coalition from 1 party to another. (slide 14) 18. The 3 major realignments of U. S. electorate are: 1. 1800-1828-Jefferson-Democratic-Republican Party 2. 1828-1860-Jackson-Democratic 3. 1860-1896-Lincoln-Republican party-William Jennings Bryan (slide 14) 19.

Civil Rights issues alienated white male conservatives in the South. Most Democrats supported Civil Rights. As a result, although the south had been Democratic since the Civil War-the 1960’s brought a shift from strong Democratic majority to Republican in the South. (p. 252) 20. 1) 3rd parties emerge to occupy a policy vacuum created by 2 main parties. 2) 3 3rd parties: A) The Liberty party dealt with issues of slavery which affected 2 other parties,as well B) The Progressive party addressed issues of industry and protection of consumers during election that was very crucial for Senators.

C)The populist party dealt with farmers economic condition. This affected the South especially which was mostly Democratic at the time. (slide 29) 21. The impact of 3rd parties are: – Influencing major parties – Could affect outcome of an election (slide 29) 22. A valance issue is uniformly liked or disliked among electorate (ie: corruption, crime. etc. ) (slide 31) 23. A position issue is one which peoples opinion are divided (ie: Abortion, prayer in public school money in politics etc. ) (slide 31) 24. (Issue) Ownership is that there are specific issues identified with each party.

(ie: Republicans want lower taxes are are Pro-life. Democrats are Pro-choice and want social services) (slide 31) 25. Need to know these aspects of PID: -PID is stable -PID develops early in life -PID is lasting core value that shapes perception of political world -PID is a lens or key structuring principal and acts as a perceptual filter that screens information -PID is central for both attitude AND behavior. (slide 17) Section I 36. Last sentence should read, “Divided more by rural vs. urban THAN through red vs. blue state. ” (slide 45) Section II 13.

Should read, ‘The slavery issue IS what tore the parties apart. As a result, The Whig party disintegrated and became the Republican party. (text. p. 254) FYI for #20 Section II- is partly correct- 1) 3rd parties emerge to occupy a policy vacuum created by 2 parties. 2) DR. Alloui clearly stated that the ONLY 3RD PARTIES WE MUST KNOW FOR TEST ARE: -AMERICAN INDEPENDENT -POPULIST -PROGRESSIVE PARTIES AND THAT IS IT. High priority Section III (JUST VOTING) 1. Delegation happens whenever 1 person (or a group) empowers another person (or a group) to do something in their name. (slide 2) 2.

Elections are effective for 3 Factors: – Careful choice-Campaigns give voters chance to review incumbents… -Incentivizes politicians to listen-Desire to be reelected (Listen to needs of the people) -Monitor politicians-Voters pay little attention. But institutions have incentives to monitor politicians. (slide 3) 3. An electoral coalition is developed by politicians out of the people responsible for voting for that office. (It revolves around 51 % to win) anything extra is a bonus (slide 4) 4. A categorical ballot is where a voter makes a straight choice, either for a candidate or party list.

(slide 7) 5. An ordinal ballot is one where the voter makes a straight choice either for a candidate or party list. (slide 7) 6. Electoral system are a method to determine the rules of voting, the form of voting, and most importantly how to translate votes into seats. (slide 7) 7. District magnitude or district size is: One-member, multi-member or country-wide districts (slide 8) 8. In the U. S. – The district magnitude of our congressional district is= 1. -Single member plurality system-1 seats per district to whoever wins more votes. -Plurality system-whoever most votes wins election. (slide 9) 9.

Electoral formula: * Single member plurality system-1 seats -Per district to whoever wins mores votes. -Plurality system whoever wins most votes-wins election -You don’t have to win 51 % (just more than your opponents) (slide 9) 10. Single member districts are plurality voting. (Each constituency elects a single member to a particular office, such as a senator or state rep. Candidate with most votes (plurality) wins election. (text p. 262) 11. The plurality system (ie: winner-take-all, First-part-the post system) is that each constituency elects 1 member to certain office. Winner with most votes wins.

51 % not applicable. * Winner in each district decides ‘Plurality’ (slide 9) 12, A Proportional representation (PR)- Is a type of electoral formula which attempts to match the proportion of seats won by a political party with the proportion of the total vote for the party, (note variants: “closed list” vs. “open list”) (slide 10) 13. Retrospective voting is on basis of how things have gone in recent past. If voter approves of current administration, he/she approves. If not, votes against it. (Back-ward strategy of voting) (slide 5) 14. Prospective voting is on basis of how thing will be in the future.

Voter predicts future performance of competing candidates and votes based on favorable outcomes. (Forward-looking strategy of voting) (slide 15) 15. Equation [ R=P(B)-C+D try to model or represent -Rational choice and voting. (slide 16) 16. R= Reward that individual gets for voting B= Differential benefit voter gets from the success of his favorable candidate/party P=Probability that a voter will bring about benefit to his/her candidate. C= Cost of voting (slide 16) 17. D represents= Our duty as citizens, or goodwill, or psychological and civic benefits of voting, or democratic duty or socialization… PID, partisan feeling etc…

This is vital because as Americans we all should feel ‘obligated’ as citizens to practice this right and serve our communities to make them better (slide 16) 18. In the plurality system the candidate who wins the seat has the greatest number of votes. But not necessarily the majority. (Just beats his/her opponents) (slide 19) 19. I think answer for this 1 is: None for party A voter %. 3 for Party B voter %. then, 0 for party A seats and 100 for party B seats. (slide 18) High priority SECTION III “ELECTIONS” (LECTURE 10) NOTE: I DID NOT COMPLETE # 30. I AM HORRIBLE AT MATH! WE WILL COVER IT IN STUDY GROUP TOMORROW AT 10 AM.

L303. GOOD LUCK! 1. Pros of Winner Take it All System are: 1) Produces decisive outcomes-Clear winner who forms next government 2) Biased in favor of large centrist parties as opposed to small extremist ones 3)Makes government formation easier (by producing large majorities) Cons: 1) “Reward” large parties, “Penalize” weak ones. (‘Defractionalization’) 2)’Magnify’ small shifts in votes shares into big gains in seats 3) Produce ‘wasted’ votes (slide 22) 2. Defractionalization is a con or disadvantage as a result of a winner-take all system. System where large parties are rewarded or weak ones are penalized. This may reduce numbers of parties and is a phenomenon called “defractionalization” (slide 22) 3. A)

We have a 2-party system because it discourages minor parties. B) It is hard for a minor or third party to win nationally because even if minor party candidate won 20% of each of the U. S. 435 races- he/she would not win any seats in Congress because no 3rd party would place first in any of the 435 single-member district races. (text p. 262) 4. Redistricting is when boundaries of every legislative district (Congressional state legislature) are redrawn every 10 years by state legislatures.

(slide 23) 5. Elected district boundaries are redrawn every 10 years (slide 23) 6. The most important criteria for drawing district boundaries is-that districts must include roughly equal populations to be in accord with the principle of, ” One person. One vote” (slide 23) 7. Eldridge Gerry was a Massachusetts Governor who took advantage and approved certain redistricting of MA. that took the shape of a salamander. (hence, coined term, “gerrymandering”) (slide 28) 8. The politicization of drawing districts is called ‘gerrymandering’ (slide 27) 9. Factors hindering voter turnout: 1.

Registration (motor-voter law) 2. Finding your polling place 3. Time involved. election day is a Tuesday (word day) 4. Many items on same ballot 5. Many elections and voters’ fatigue: -Causes -Open vs. closed primary -Special elections -Local/state/Federal -General 6. Voter ID laws in some stated (which depresses turnout) (slide 30) 10. Factors that influence voter/turnout: 1. More people vote when physically easy: Good weather, early voting, voting by mail and voting by internet (in U. K. ) 2. More vote when high-profile election (ie: Obama Presidential election) 3. Strong party identification 4.

More likely to vote if he/she has life experience (ie: Older and more educate) 5. If he/she believes voting matters (ie: Efficacy) (slide 31) 11. Informational shortcuts-When voting, are simple cues that are easy to learn which convey important info. for candidates. (ie: you may not know term “inflation” but know your funds cannot buy as many groceries as before) (slide 33) 12. Sources of informational shortcuts: 1. Political parties 2. Incumbency (voters know the candidate) 3. Economy: A) Sociotropic voter-Votes for what benefits the nation or community B) Self-interest voter-Votes for what benefits ‘self’.

4. Single-use (What candidate is closer to YOUR views) 5. Endorsements (slide 34) 13. If people are not versed in politics most vital information shortcut is your POLITICAL PARTY. (What party are you? ) (slide 34) 14. 1) Donations to candidates and parties is controlled and limited. 2) Yes it is limited 3) -Max of 25,000 per elections to a Federal candidate -Max of 5,000 per year to a PAC (Political Action Committee) -Max of 10,000 per year to a state or local party committee -Max 30,800 per year to a national party committee -Max 100 in cash to any political party.

HOWEVER, donations to Super-PACS are unlimited and uncontrolled. (slides 37 and 38) 15. Elected campaigns strategics combine voters into 3 groups: -Those against you-Ignore them -Those for you-Get them to the polls -Undecided voters- Convince them to vote for YOU (slide 36) 16. 1) yes, candidates can give to themselves (must be filthy rich for this to work in your favor) 2) There are no limits for candidates to contribute to their own campaigns (slide 39) 17. A 527 is an independent expenditures tax-exempt org. (Named after “Section 527” of the U. S. I. R. S. Code) (slide 39) 18.

1)The citizens United vs. Federal Election SCOTUS Ruling is vital because under this corporation can donate unlimited funds to 527 groups-to run a negative or positive campaign against or for a candidate. This lead to the creation of Super-PACS. 2) This raised the bar tremendously. If you are a candidate who is wealthy with wealthy constituents- You are at a serious advantage over you opponent. However, I don’t think it is a level playing field for certain candidates who are not the wealthy elite. (slide 40) 19. 1) Open Primary- Any registered voter can vote in any party’s primary.

as can independent voters not registered with a party. 2) Closed Party- Voting is limited to members of a party 3) First Primary- Is in New Hampshire (slide 43) 20. A caucus is a meeting of party members (in school, church, town halls, firehouses etc. ) to select a presidential nominee. Iowa is the first caucus (slide 43) 21. A sociotropic voter votes for the benefit of the nation or community not for solely based on what benefits his/herself. (slide 34) 22. A self-interested or pocketbook voter votes solely based on what benefits his/herself-not the country. (slide 34)

23. The presidential election is an indirect election. We vote to select a list of electors that form the electoral college. (slide 44) 24. 1) The electoral college is composed of 538 presidential electors who meet every 4 years to cast electoral votes for president and V. P of the U. S. 2) There are 538 electoral votes (slide 45) 25. Why does CA. have 55 electoral votes and GA. has only 15? There are only 2 senators per state. However, the House Reps for each state vary. That is how the electoral votes are tallied. Therefore, each state is going to vary. (slide 46) 26.

To win Presidency, you have to win 270 electors of the 538 electoral votes. (50 %+ 1 of 538) (slide 49) 27. The electoral college is 538 electors- 435 (from the House of Representatives) and 100 (Senate) + 3 from District of Columbia. 28. There are 538 votes or electors in the electoral college. = 435 from (The House) and 100 (in the Senate) + 3 from District of Columbia. (2 senators from each state + however, many State reps. from ea. state) 29. It is MORE VITAL to win electoral college than popular vote for a Presidential election. (slide 49) 30. * DID NOT COMPLETE THIS 1! Am horrible at math! LOL! :- ( 31.

The biggest problem with the electoral college is that winning the nation’s popular vote does not automatically translate into a win in the electoral college. (slide 55) 32. The electoral college has not been changed because: 1) The E. C. does encourage candidates to secure support in all corners of the country (ie: pays attention to small states) 2) Eliminating the E. C. would decrease the role of the states. (especially in the Federal system where states DO matter) 3) Doing away with the E. C. would require a constitutional amendment (which would unlikely happen) (3/4 of states need to ratify amendment) (slide 54)

High priority Section III (JUST VOTING)REVISION-SORRY WAS TYPING AFTER MIDNIGHT! | | 1. Delegation happens whenever 1 person (or a group) empowers another person (or a group) to do something in their name. (slide 2) | | 2. Elections are effective for 3 Factors: | – Careful choice-Campaigns give voters chance to review incumbents… | -Incentivizes politicians to listen-Desire to be reelected | (Listen to needs of the people) | -Monitor politicians-Voters pay little attention. But institutions have incentives to monitor politicians. | (slide 3) | | 3.

An electoral coalition is developed by politicians out of the people responsible for voting for that office. (It revolves around 51 % to win) anything extra is a bonus | (slide 4) | | 4. A categorical ballot is where a voter makes a straight choice, either for a candidate or party list. (slide 7) | | 5. An ordinal ballot is one where the voter makes his/her preferences among various candidates or parties in declining order (1,2,3 and so forth) (slide 7) | | 6. Electoral system are a method to determine the rules of voting, the form of voting, and most importantly how to translate votes into seats. (slide 7) | | 7.

District magnitude or district size is: One-member, multi-member or country-wide districts (slide 8) | | 8. In the U. S. – The district magnitude of our congressional district is= 1. | -Single member plurality system-1 seats per district to whoever wins more votes. | -Plurality system-whoever most votes wins election. | (slide 9) | | 9. Electoral formula: | * Single member plurality system-1 seats | -Per district to whoever wins mores votes. | -Plurality system whoever wins most votes-wins election | -You don’t have to win 51 % (just more than your opponents) (slide 9) | | 10. Single member districts are plurality voting.

(Each constituency elects a single member to a particular office, such as a senator or state rep. Candidate with most votes (plurality) wins election. (text p. 262) | | 11. The plurality system (ie: winner-take-all, First-part-the post system) is that each constituency elects 1 member to certain office. Winner with most votes wins. 51 % not applicable. * Winner in each district decides ‘Plurality’ (slide 9) | | 12, A Proportional representation (PR)- Is a type of electoral formula which attempts to match the proportion of seats won by a political party with the proportion of the total vote for the party, (note variants: “closed list” vs.

“open list”) (slide 10) | | 13. Retrospective voting is on basis of how things have gone in recent past. If voter approves of current administration, he/she approves. If not, votes against it. (Back-ward strategy of voting) (slide 5) | | 14. Prospective voting is on basis of how thing will be in the future. Voter predicts future performance of competing candidates and votes based on favorable outcomes. (Forward-looking strategy of voting) | (slide 15) | | 15. Equation [ R=P(B)-C+D try to model or represent -Rational choice and voting. (slide 16) | | 16.

| R= Reward that individual gets for voting | B= Differential benefit voter gets from the success of his favorable candidate/party | P=Probability that a voter will bring about benefit to his/her candidate. | C= Cost of voting (slide 16) | | 17. D represents= Our duty as citizens, or goodwill, or psychological and civic benefits of voting, or democratic duty or socialization… PID, partisan feeling etc… | This is vital because as Americans we all should feel ‘obligated’ as citizens to practice this right and serve our communities to make them better (slide 16) | | 18.

In the plurality system the candidate who wins the seat has the greatest number of votes. But not necessarily the majority. (Just beats his/her opponents) | (slide 19) | | 19. I think answer for this 1 is: None for party A voter %. 3 for Party B voter %. then, 0 for party A seats and 100 for party B seats. (slide 18) | High priority SECTION I. Public Opinion and Pol. Socialization (Chapter 6) 1. Public Opinion is the collective belief of citizens on a given issue or question at a given point of time. (slide 3) or viewed as politically relevant opinions held by ordinary citizens that they can express openly (in text) 2.

Attitude is a preference which relates to something very specific as: -An issue (abortion, death penalty war in Iraq) -A person (Bush, Obama, Boehner, Romney) -An institution ( Fed. Reserve, Congress, Supreme Court) -An event (2008 election, 9/11, Iraq War) (slide 7) 3. ideology is set of attributes that form a general philosophy about the role of gov. Generally we think of people as being either liberal or conservative, though in reality it’s a little more complicated than that. (slide 7) 4. A) Party (PID) is generally a person is either Democrat or Republican B) We define this as, “Generally speaking what do you consider yourself as…

Democrat? or Republican? ” (slide7) 5. Over time public opinions is more stable-because in the realm of foreign policy, public opinion is less stable, especially on issues like war. It is influenced by international events. Overt time on domestic issues-public opinion is more stable (slide 4) (in text p. 19) 6. The process of influence and formation of attitude ideology,party, identification is called Political Socialization. (slide12) Political socialization is the complex process which individuals become aware of politics, learn political facts, attitudes, views and opinions and form political values.

(slide 13) 7. The link between political socialization and civic engagement is that the strength of our political socialization has a direct relationship with our civic involvement and engagement. (slide 13) 8. Agents of socialization are: A) Primary- Agents interact closely and regularly with individual (ie: family, church) B) Secondary- Agents are less intimate (ie: work associates) (in text. p. 192) 9. Agents or factors of socialization are individuals, organization and institutions that facilitate and mediate the acquisition of political views, opinions and values. Primary- Family, school and church.

Secondary- Peers, media and leaders (slide 14) 10. A) 4 agents of socialization that influence society as a whole are: 1. The economy 2. Political events (9/11) 3. Opinions leaders 4. Media and interest groups (slide 15) B) All of these agents affect our views over time. Depending on the issue, the timing and socio-economic/pol. climate we influenced by these agents and form opinions based on them 11. The events of 9/11 would be an example of a political event as an agent of socialization? In May 2001 not many Americans were willing to give