Mushroom is the popular name for any of the larger fleshy fungi, mostly of the class Basidiomycetes. A mushroom is not a complete fungus plant instead; it is for spore producing fruiting body that develops from an extensive mass of fine threads present in the ground or the substrate on which the fungus grows. Most mushrooms, comprising many hundreds of species, are gill fungi or boletes and belong to other Agaricales. Many of this is contained in the family Agaricaceae. Sometimes the name mushroom is applied only to edible fungi, while in edible kinds-especially those with an umbrella-shaped cup-are called toadstools.
At one time mushrooms generally were grown in caves, abandoned mines, and similar places that provided approximately the right temperature and humidity, but with the development of the mushroom industry most mushrooms came to be produced in specially constructed, air-conditioned buildings, where conditions favorable for growth could be more carefully controlled. Different kinds of agricultural and food wastes have been used or tried for growing various edible mushrooms in the world. These wastes are produced in big volumes during production of agricultural products every year causing lots of environmental problems in many countries.
Only a very small part of these agro-wastes has been properly converted into useful or high-value products. Production of edible or medicinal mushroom is a successful example of agro-waste recycling. Nowadays, the most extensively used agro-wastes for production of edible mushrooms are wheat or rice straw, sawdust or wood chip, sugarcane bagasse, cotton waste and cotton seed hull, corn cob, rice or wheat bran, chicken or horse manure. Other green materials, such as cotton stalk and soybean straw, coffee pulp etc. have also been used or tried for growing edible mushrooms in some countries.
In Taiwan, the most popular agro-waste for mushroom cultivation are rice straw, cotton waste, sawdust or wood chip, rice or wheat bran, and chicken manure. These agro-wastes with or without fertilizers or other nutrient supplements have been converted into many edible and medicinal mushrooms. Because of the high-cost of edible mushrooms in the market the researchers gained interest in producing edible mushrooms that are from plant residues to save money and to have additional income at the same time. The study will be done to prove that dried water hyacinth leaves and rice hull can produce edible mushrooms.
Furthermore, this study has a propensity of producing additional source of food and can easily be grown by ordinary people at their backyards. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The study entitled Production of Edible Mushroom Volvariella Volvacea Using Rice Hull and Dried Water Hyacinth Leaves aims to produce edible mushrooms using rice hull and dried water hyacinth leaves. Specifically, it attempts to answer the following questions: 1. Would rice hull and dried water hyacinth leaves produce mushrooms? 2. Can dried water hyacinth leaves and rice hull produce edible mushroom?
3. Is there a significant difference between producing edible mushroom using rice hull and water hyacinth leaves as compared to the traditional way of producing mushroom? STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS The following hypotheses are affirmed in null form. 1. Rice hull and dried water hyacinth leaves can’t produce mushrooms. 2. Rice hull and dried water hyacinth leaves can’t produce edible mushrooms. 3. There is no significant difference between producing edible mushroom using rice hull and water hyacinth leaves as compared to the traditional way of producing mushroom.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The importance of the study will test the feasibility growth of the mushroom on rice hull and dried water hyacinth leaves. If the outcome of the study proves to be successful, it will provide people with additional source of food using waste product. To The Researchers: It helps the researchers to progress, utilize their skills and knowledge regarding the study. To The Community: As a member of the society, this study aims to produce additional source of nutritious food to the community.
To The Environment: To use by-products like rice hull and dried water hyacinth leaves in producing edible mushroom without harming the environment. There are lots of sources of it everywhere. To The Future Researchers: To enhance the study more for them to find another alternative substrate in which they will try to produce the same, even a different type of mushroom. SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study entitled “Production of Edible Mushroom Volvariella Volvacea Using Rice Hull and Dried Water Hyacinth Leaves” will be executed at Bicos Rizal, Nueva Ecija by a group of students from Honorato C.
Perez Sr. Memorial Science High School.. This study primarily deals with the use of rice hull and dried water hyacinth leaves as a bed in where the mushrooms will grow. This study is limited to the possibility of producing edible mushrooms specifically Volvariella Volvaceae using rice hull and dried water hyacinth leaves. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Mushrooms are of the fungi family subdivision of Basidiomycotina, of the class Hymenomycetes. The word mushroom is derived from the Gallo-Roman mussiro which evolved to mussereroun in Middle English.
There are so many varieties of mushrooms, both edible and toxic, that mass consumption is pretty much limited to those commercially-grown varieties which can be trusted to be edible. In the eighteenth century, France began cultivating mushrooms resembling the basic mushroom that we all buy at the market. (http://homecooking. about. com/od/foodhistory/a/shroomhistory. htm) Production of edible mushrooms, such as Agaricus bisporus, Volvariella volvacea and Auricularia polytricha, was mainly for canning or drying for export, but these are not affordable to consumers and mushroom growers themselves.
Mushroom products were regarded as a luxury food at that time. Now, nearly all production of edible mushrooms is for domestic fresh market and a very small proportion is exported to other countries. The market price of mushroom products are now affordable to health- conscious people. As such, the consumption of edible mushrooms is increasing in Taiwan, thereby benefiting our mushroom growers and the mushroom industry. (http://www. agnet. org/library. php? func=view&id=20110725155730&type_id=4) Edible mushroom are highly nutritious and can be compared with eggs, milk, and meat.
The content of essential amino acids in mushroom is highly enclosed to the need of the human body: Mushroom is easily digestible and it has no cholesterol content. However, the cultuvatiuon of mushroom is still very limited and the industry id still at its infancy in Nigeria. During an investigation of the cultivation of mushroom on agricultural residues it was found that rice husk sorghum stover, saw dust, cotton waste, cocoa bean shell- Gliricidia mixture are suitable substrates for the cultivation of edible mushroom.
While, rice straw, water liliy and banana leaves are equally implicated. (Cultivation of mushroom (Volvariella Volvacea) on banana leaves. Microbial Biotechnology and Dairy Science laboratory, Department of Animal Production, University of llorin, Kwara State, Nigeria- September 9, 2005) Well-composted horse manure is still the preferred substratum for mushroom growing, but artificial manures, composed of straw and other plant residues to which organic or inorganic fertilizers have been added, also are used to some extent. (Encyclopedia Americana International
Edition Volume 19 (First published in 1829)(pp. 644-645) Volvariella Volvacea Volvariella Volvacea’s common name comes from the rice straw on which they are grown. The straw mushroom, also called “paddy straw mushroom,” is cultivated in the hot, steamy climate of Southeast Asia. Attempts to grow them in the southern United States so far have been unsuccessful. They are not widely eaten in the United States, but worldwide they rank third in consumption. Indeed, straw mushrooms have been used for food in China for two thousand years. They look like tan quail eggs.
They are harvested in the “egg stage” before the caps have erupted from their confining universal veils. When sold in this condition they are called “unpeeled. ” Research has shown that these unopened caps contain a more nutritious balance of amino acids than when opened, suggesting that these mushrooms could supplement proteins lacking in the Asian diet. That is why this mushroom is seldom found “peeled,” or in its mature state with the cap open. (http://www. mssf. org/cookbook/straw. html) Water Hyacinth Water hyacinth is fast growing perennial aquatic macrophyte.
It is a member of pickerelweed family (Pontederiaceae) and its name Eichhornia was derived from well-known 19th century Prussian politician J. A. F. Eichhorn. This tropical plant spread throughout the world in late 19th and early 20th century. (http://balwois. com/balwois/administration/full_paper/ffp-623. pdf) Mature plants of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) consist of long, pendant roots, rhizomes, stolons, leaves, inflorescences and fruit clusters. The plants may be up to 1m high, although 40 cm is the more usual height.
The inflorescences bears 6-10 liliy-like flowers, each 4-7 cm in diameter. The stems and leaves contain air-filled tissue, which give the plants considerable buoyancy. Vegetative reproduction takes place at a rapid rate under preferential conditions (Herjford, Osthagen and Saelthun, 1994). Water hyacinths are considered as nuisance species because they multiply rapidly and clod lakes, rivers and ponds. The thick mats formed under favourable conditions often obstruct fishing, shipping and irrigation and are hard to eradicate.
Great efforts are being made to contain water hyacinths but, on the other hand, attempts are being made to find practical uses for the large biomass that is available. It offers the potential for use as fodder for domestic animals, as fish feed, for the production of biogas and for the removal of heavy metals and phenols from polluted waters. For example, studies have shown that about 1 million L/day of domestic sewage could be treated over an area of 1 ha through water hyacinths, reducing the BOD and COD by 89 and 71 percent, respectively.
(http://www. fao. org/docrep/012/i1141e/i1141e04. pdf) Throughout Africa, people are determined to look on the bright side of this watery invasion, and make the most of this uninvited harvest. Animal feed, organic fertilizer for farms and gardens, biogas production, fuel briquettes, and craft-making are among the list of possible uses. Prisoners at Murchison Bay Reserve in Uganda make furniture from water hyacinth, learning new craft skills whilst they are in prison, as well as contributing to clearing Lake Victoria.
Women at the WHUP(Water Hyacinth Utilization Project) in Kenya are making money from the menace, selling handmade water hyacinth chairs, tables, baskets, shades, paper, books, and cards. (http://www. paceproject. net/UserFiles/File/Water/Water%20hyacinth. pdf) Rice Hull Rice is the principal crop in the North Region of Rocha Municipality, and is produced in 55% of the Biosphere Reserve. After processing, the rice industry produces about 143,000 metric tons of rice hulls per year in the region. This crop residue is not utilized, and in most cases is burned.
During 1994 and 1995, PROBIDES[->0] (Biodiversity of Conservancy and Development Sustainable Program at East’s Wetlands of Uruguay) conducted several experiments to obtain organic fertilizers by rice hull composting and vermicomposting, and to evaluate the effect of adding different sources of nitrogen and inoculum. The duration of this process was about 4 months. Using standard composting methods, rice hull degradation was not total, whereas in the vermicomposting, rice hulls lost their structure. Using composts made by mixing rice hulls with manure contributes micronutrients and improves soil structure (more water and air retention).
This is a good example of crop residue utilization and its transformation into a resource. Rice hulls, with their high lignin and cellulose content are a source of the precursors of humus, the organic matter component with the most stability and nutrient availability. At this time, people are adopting rice hull composting practices to obtain organic fertilizers, which are sold in this region for application in gardens, homegardens, parks, etc. This organic fertilizer is sold in bags made from recycled paper. (http://www. agroecology. org/Case%20Studies/rice_hull. html)