Procedural justice USA

Procedural justice is the fairness of methods and procedures by which decisions are made in the organization (Moorman, 1991). Organizational justice is proven an antecedent of citizenship behavior and the nature of this relationship may vary as a purpose of individual and situational attributes (Farh, Earley, & Lin, 1997). Past research have shown that perceptions of  procedural justice contributes on predicting OCBs (Moorman et al. , 1993). For example, when employees perceive that the policies and procedures of the organization are fair, it would elicit OCB.

Thus, procedural justice promotes a subordinate’s faith in his or her supervisor and organization, and drives him or her to exhibit OCB which is often outstanding (Alotaibi, 2001; Konovsky & Pugh, 1994). Organizational Commitment. It is the identification and involvement of employees to an organization (Mowday et al. , 1979). Commitment has been found to be related to a variety of attitudinal and behavioral consequences among employees such as motivation level and organizational citizenship behavior (Mayer & Allen, 1997).

Previous study has shown that organizational commitment is significantly related to OCBs (Williams & Anderson, 1991). For example, committed employees will contribute outputs outside their formal work requirements. Therefore, loyal employees contribute their time and energy to the search of organizational goals and increasingly acknowledged to be the basic asset available to an organization (Pfeffer, 1998). Empirical Studies Guest, Conway, and Dewe (2004) investigated the effectiveness of HR practices treated as a bundle compared to treating it as individual practices using sequential tree analysis.

A sample of 1308 managers from public sectors participated in the study. The study found that bundle HR practices using sequential tree analysis produces superior outcomes. The study concluded that sequential tree analysis has the advantage of setting out a priority list among practices, of identifying distinct combinations and of showing not only the practices that are associated with highest and lowest outcomes but also identifying mid-range combinations that affect the outcome at a statistically significant level.

Bradley, Petrescu, and Simmons (2004) conducted a study on the impact of HRM practices on workers overall job satisfaction and their satisfaction with their pay. This study used a sample size of 2466 union and non-union workers from different organizations. The study found that HRM practices have a statistically significant, and in some cases substantial, effect on workers’ overall job satisfaction and on their satisfaction with pay. The study concluded that that many of the positive effects are only important for non-union members, which suggests that HRM practices are either a threat or irrelevance to union members.

Garrido, Perez, and Anton (2005) conducted a study of HRM practices as determinants of job satisfaction. The study used a sample of Spanish industrial firms with 420 sales or marketing managers. The results of the study indicated that HR practices based on compensation level and type, as well as, job design resources and independence appears to be fundamental determinants of job satisfaction. The study concluded firms to combine pecuniary and non-pecuniary incentives in order to satisfy their managers. Ogilvie (1986) conducted the study of HRM practices on organizational commitment.

A sample of 67 managers from agricultural production company participated in the study. The study found that HRM practices have a positive relationship with organizational commitment. The study concluded that the growth of organizational commitment remains as an important practical and theoretical issues, valuing more careful research and application. The use of HRM practices and policies signify an applied and highly capable approach for managers, consultants, and HRM professionals to influence organizational commitment.