Principal Problems Facing the European Union

Turkey is a country waiting to integrate the European Union, having filed his candidacy in 1963. This one was formalized after the return of democracy in the country in 1967. Since then, Turkey expects the effective implementation of its accession negotiations. Moreover, the future of Turkey in the European Union has darkened after the victory of the party of justice, where the president of the European Convention, Valery Giscard d'Estaing, said that the entry of Turkey in the European Union sign the end of it. So,we can ask ourselves about the various disadvantages and advantages as regards the accession.

Thus, we see in the first part what are the economic and geographic arguments, which then will join a strategic argument. Then in the second part, we will show the religious, historical, cultural and political views. To introduce this first part we can specify that the European Union in December 2004 took the historic decision to open accession negotiations with Turkey. The official talks were opened October 3, 2005. Turkey's candidacy to the European Union is one of the great debates that have punctuated the process of European construction: the Treaty of Maastricht, the single currency … Let us first consider the economic arguments.

What cost to the entry of Turkey in Europe? Economists estimate that there is a risk of long-term''unfair competition''from this country with the rest of the European Union. In addition, the Turkish economy is weaker than that of the union, it might be a flood of immigration. The geographical argument is based on the fact that Turkey is not European, its capital is not in Europe, it has 95% of its population outside of Europe. Indeed this is one of the main arguments of Valery Giscard d'Estaing:''The problem is that the definition of European borders is absolutely artificial and has varied over time.

'On the other hand, as mentioned above we can associate with geographic sometimes conflicting arguments at a strategic one, as its location at the crossroads of continents, the entry of Turkey into Europe put this last. Indeed, Turkey could become the spokesman of the European Union in Muslim countries and maybe they will listen more easily a message issued by a country near you. It would be a great message of tolerance towards the Muslim religion. Now lets see the religious viewpoints. Recall the current controversy for a number of countries in Europe, and Turkey demonstrates, of the place of Islamic head-scarves in lay countries.

It is necessary to reaffirm the principle of secularism in Europe, the absence of religious discrimination and did not register (as requested by the Pope) the notion of Catholic religious heritage. Second, closely related, historical and cultural arguments point out that Turkey was a certain time the enemies of Europe (particularly in reference to the Ottoman Empire). Moreover, the goal of Europe is to bring together countries to find common ground and prevent a war between them (the origin of Europe with the Franco-German).

Finally, some people say we can not find points of convergence between European countries and Turkey, which does not have a common culture with the countries of the union. Note that Turkey has more in common with Greece than it with the Baltic countries. And to finish this last part, the political arguments show what appears to be the most important European states, it is their loss of power in parliament, because they are percentages of lower population. France and Germany would lose their place as the most important powers of Europe being outnumbered by Turkey, which seems to have less legitimacy because it is a country newcomer.

Moreover, since the promise of entry of Turkey, many advances have been made : abolition of the death penalty in peacetime, prohibition of torture … Obviously this is not enough but the prospect of integration seems to facilitate the establishment of a healthier democracy. So, Turkey is not ready, but once democracy will be more stable, its entry into the European Union will be possible. the future of the European Union with or without the turkey. Of course it's basically the attitude of Turkey, its internal reforms, its compliance with admission criteria laid down by the union that the decision will depend.

By definition, it is up to Turkey to persuade the union and its members about the merits of his candidacy. On the other hand, in Europe, well beyond the accession of new member state, membership or not of Turkey's in the European Union provokes a discussion on the nature of European construction, raising to both issues about borders, power, project… Thus, considering the integration of a country very different from its history, its institutions and its political, economic and social development, the European Union launched a debate on its own identity and its future.

The accession of Turkey represents for the future, a bet on the ability of the union to transform itself deep and geographically but also on the strength of his model. the constraints of the euro today Since its introduction on the first January 1999 until today, the Euro has undoubtedly made it possible to confirm with more importance the economic and financial power of the European Union. But the euro does not have just advantages, there are constraints that weaken its influence worldwide. We can wonders what are the various constraints of the Euro ? The euro, a factor of inflation?

Since 2002, Europeans are less satisfied with the euro. Many polls show skepticism of citizens towards the euro. Indeed, many households feel that the euro has influenced price increases : ; it is true that many prices have suddenly increased in particular for consumer goods (food etc. ). For example between 2006 and 2007 the price of vegetables rose by 6. 1%, coffee by 5. 2%, newspapers by 5%. Many citizens believe that companies took advantage of the changeover to the euro to round their prices up or even increase their margins due to the loss of reference of the consumer.

However we can qualify this price increase, according to figures from INSEE, France's inflation is not higher than before the euro. Nevertheless, we can wonder why there is a remarkable difference between the feelings of consumers and figures from INSEE. This notable difference is that the measures of the increase in consumer prices of a basket containing both consumer goods and other items such as new technologies (television, computer, DVD …). The consumer tends to focus on the price of goods they buy every day, rather than on occasional purchases.

But the prices of these goods tends to decline, for example, between 2006 and 2007, there was a decrease of -13% for computer hardware, this phenomenon also includes clothing, cars … Households did not necessarily registered those declines in their assessment of inflation, instead they took the opportunity to increase their consumption of these products. Ultimately the transition to the euro has influenced consumers' perception of higher prices, however, it is difficult to talk about real inflation figures given by INSEE. The weaknesses of a strong currency It is necessary to distinguish between appreciation and depreciation of a currency.

The appreciation of a currency is increasing the price of a currency compare to another currency. In contrast to a currency depreciation is a decline in its exchange rate. Undoubtedly, a strong currency has advantages, but there are also disadvantages that we will demonstrate : A strong euro appreciating globally increases the purchasing power of importers in the euro area. You can take a simple example, if 1 € = $ 1. 40 with 100 € the importer can buy $ 140 of foreign products. Unlike foreign importers are losing purchasing power on European products, this forces companies to reduce their prices to stay competitive.

The strong euro thus reduces European exports, we import more than we exports. Eurogroup of Companies may fear a loss of export earnings. So for companies that produce in euro and sell in dollar, a rise of the euro leads to a reduction in revenue even more. Dependence toward the ECB (European Central Bank) The euro single currency does not allow the ECB to adopt its monetary policy and its key rate for each country in the euro area. Indeed, the euro requires member states, a single policy on interest rates, it can no longer devalue its currency.

For example, the French government can not devalue its currency as it did 17 times during the twentieth century. To boost exports by making French companies attractive. So with a single currency the solutions are identical for each countries of the eurozone, while there are wide disparities in growth between some countries in the area. The agreement between national banks and the ECB is therefore essential. Moreover, the main objective of the ECB is to fight against inflation, Jean-Claude Trichet President of the ECB wants to maintain a fixed rate, some economists agree that this high rate dictated by ECB is a drag on growth.

Ultimately the strong euro does not have only advantages, many disadvantages persist particularly for businesses. Many countries in the Eurozone as France and Ireland are overwhelmed by the strong euro, only Germany has put forward its brand image and its specialization to stay competitive. Appendices : http://geography. about. com/od/politicalgeography/a/turkeyeu. htm http://ec. europa. eu/enlargement/candidate-countries/turkey/index_en. htm http://www. topforexnews. com/2011/03/26/week-of-eurusd-weakness/ http://wppts. com/euro-currency-weakness-domino-effect-worries-continue/365514/.