Prime minister – Cabinet

The National Development Council (NDC) or the Rashtriya Vikas Parishad is the apex body for decision making and deliberations on development matters in India, presided over by the Prime Minister. It was set up on August 6, 1952 to strengthen and mobilize the effort and resources of the nation in support of the Plan, to promote common economic policies in all vital spheres, and to ensure the balanced and rapid development of all parts of the country.

The Council comprises the Prime Minister, the Union Cabinet Ministers, Chief Ministers of all States or their substitutes, representatives of the union territories and the members of the Commissions. It is an extra-constitutional and non-statutory body. Its status is advisory to planning commission but not binding. The first meeting chaired by Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru on November 8–9, 1952. So far 57 meetings had been held. The 57th Meeting of National Development Council was held on 27 December 2012 at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi.

The National Development Council is presided over by the Prime Minister of India and includes all Union Ministers, Chief Ministers of all the States and Administrators of Union Territories and Members of the Planning Commission. Ministers of State with independent charge are also invited to the deliberations of the Council. Objectives It has been set up with three objectives 1. to strengthen and mobilize the effort and resources of the nation in support of the Plan 2. to promote common economic policies in all vital spheres and 3.

to ensure the balanced and rapid development of all parts of the country. Functions The functions of the Council are 1. to prescribe guidelines for the formulation of the National Plan, including the assessment of resources for the Plan; 2. to consider the National Plan as formulated by the Planning Commission; 3. to consider important questions of social and economic policy affecting national development; and 4. to review the working of the Plan from time to time and to recommend such measures as are necessary for achieving the aims and targets set out in the National Plan. PLANNING COMMISSION.

Rudimentary economic planning, deriving the sovereign authority of the state, first initiated in India in 1938 by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose when he was the Congress president and drafted by Meghnad Saha. The British Raj also formally established a planning board that functioned from 1944 to 1946. Industrialists and economists independently formulated at least three development plans in 1944. After India gained independence, a formal model of planning was adopted, and accordingly the Planning Commission, reporting directly to the Prime Minister of India was established on 15 March 1950, with prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru as the chairman.

The Planning Commission does not derive its creation from either the Constitution or statute, but is an arm of the Central/Union Government. Organisation The composition of the Commission has undergone a lot of change since its inception. With the prime minister as the ex-officio Chairman, the committee has a nominated Deputy chairman, who is given the rank of a full Cabinet Minister. Mr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia is presently the Deputy Chairman of the Commission.

Cabinet Ministers with certain important portfolios act as part-time members of the Commission, while the full-time members are experts of various fields like Economics, Industry, Science and General Administration. The Planning Commission has been granted constitutional status through 52nd Amendment of the Constitution. No big plan can be executed without its prior approval by the Planning Commission. The Commission formulates three types of plans: (a) Perspective plans for 15-25 years, (b) Five year plans, and (c) Annual plans within the framework of Five Year Plan.

At national level Planning Commission is the nodal agency responsible for the countries planning. It not only prepares Plans for the country but also coordinates the sectored development works of different ministries of the central Government, states and union territories. The functions of the Planning Commission are supervised through the National Development Council. In real sense of the term the perspective planning is of little significance except that it helps in the achievement of long-term socio-economic objectives.

The Planning Commission also issues guidelines to the states for perspective planning, monitoring and evaluation of existing plans, plan formulation, regional or district planning and for plan coordination. Functions The Planning Commission’s functions as outlined by the Government’s 1950 resolution are following: 1. To make an assessment of the material, capital and human resources of the country, including technical personnel, and investigate the possibilities of augmenting those resources which are found to be deficient in relation to the nation’s requirement.

2. To formulate a plan for the most effective and balanced utilisation of country’s resources. 3. To define the stages, on the basis of priority, in which the plan should be carried out and propose the allocation of resources for the due completion of each stage. 4. To indicate the factors that tend to retard economic development. 5. To determine the conditions which need to be established for the successful execution of the plan within the incumbent socio-political situation of the country. 6.

To determine the nature of the machinery required for securing the successful implementation of each stage of the plan in all its aspects. 7. To appraise from time to time the progress achieved in the execution of each stage of the plan and also recommend the adjustments of policy and measures which are deemed important vis-a-vis a successful implementation of the plan. 8. To make necessary recommendations from time to time regarding those things which are deemed necessary for facilitating the execution of these functions.

Such recommendations can be related to the prevailing economic conditions, current policies, measures or development programmes. They can even be given out in response to some specific problems referred to the commission by the central or the state governments. From a highly centralised planning system, the Indian economy is gradually moving towards indicative planning where the Planning Commission concerns itself with the building of a long-term strategic vision of the future and decide on priorities of nation. It works out sectoral targets and provides promotional stimulus to the economy to grow in the desired direction.

It also plays an integrative role in the development of a holistic approach to the policy formulation in critical areas of human and economic development. In the social sector, schemes that require coordination and synthesis like rural health, drinking water, rural energy needs, literacy and environment protection have yet to be subjected to coordinated policy formulation. It has led to multiplicity of agencies. The commission has now been trying to formulate and integrated approach to deal with this issue. The Planning Commission has asked the States to hike the power tariff to save the ailing power sector.

It also called upon the States to utilise the power subsidy for improvement to essential services like drinking water supply, education and health for promoting inclusive growth. STATE PLANNING BOARD At state level the mechanism of the planning is almost same of the national level. The state Planning Board acts like national planning Commission and coordinates the development plans of different ministries and the districts. It also has the responsibility of the formulation, implementation and monitoring of state plan.

The State Planning Board works under the overall guidance of the State Government and is headed by the Chief Minister, as an Ex-Officio Chairman. The State Government can appoint Vice Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson as per the requirements. The other Ex-Officio members include all ministers, all MPs, Chairmen of Advisory Committees to Chief Minister, Chief Secretary, Principal Secretary Finance and Principal Secretary to Chief Minister. Besides Non -Official Members can be appointed as per requirement. Principal Secretary Planning or Secretary Planning is the Member Secretary of the State Planning Board.

It is in constant touch with Planning Commission regarding the formulation of plans and allocation of resources. Under the federal set up of the country states enjoy autonomy in certain state subjects and play pivotal role in the implementation of planning programmes. It is at state level that all sorts of economic and social data are available and development plans could be formulated keeping regional interests and demands in mind. Hence, there is a need for more rigorous exercise of planning at state-level. Functions of State Planning Board.

1) To provide overall guidance in the formulation and implementation of Five Year Plans and Annual Plans 2) To suggest policies for optimum utilization of natural and human resources 3) To advise on evolving appropriate policies and programmes towards reduction of regional imbalances in the State 4) To suggest measures to improve the investment climate in the State economy in tune with the Economic Reforms Programme 5) To advise on investment levels required under plan and resources mobilisation for the same 6) To suggest appropriate strategies and priorities in the State Plan within the frame work of the National Plan 7)

To review the implementation of Plan Programmes/ Projects and to recommend suitable measures for effective implementation 8) To recommend measures to improve decentralised planning and implementation particularly at District and to integrate these plans with State Sector Plans 9) To make recommendations on matters which may be referred to it by the Government from time to time. 10) To sponsor research studies and seminars required for the work of State Planning Board at Universities or other Research Institutions outside Government. REFERENCE 1. Suresh Bhatnagar, ‘Development of education in India’. R lall Book Depot- Meerut, 2006.

2. Aggarwal J C, “Development and Planning of Modern Education”. Sixth Revised Edition, Vikas Publishing House PVT LTD, Delhi, 1999. 3. Avasthi & Avasthi, ‘Public Administration in India” Seventh Revised Edition, Lakshmi Narain Agarwal, Agra-3, 2000. 4. www. wikipedia. com.