1. In our discussion of representation in the United States, we discussed the various amendments to the U. S. Constitution that increased citizen representation. Name three amendments to the U. S. Constitution that increased citizen representation in our government, and explain specifically, how each either expanded our electorate or made the government more representatives of its citizens. – Amendment XV – African American Suffrage – African Americans receive the right to vote.
– Amendment XIX- Women’s Suffrage -Gives women the power to vote – Amendment XXVI- Suffrage for 18-Year-Olds- Voting age moved to 18 2. Drawing upon your understanding of the essential functions of legislatures, as well as the basic characteristics of California’s State legislature, as presented in Matthew Jarvis’s chapter on the California State legislature in California Government in National Perspective, explain the most important similarities and differences between the U. S. Congress and the California State legislature.
• Both are bicameral. • Both have the Senate as the upper house. • Both the Assembly and the US House are led by a Speaker. 3. Define agenda setting in general terms & demonstrate how congressional leaders set Congress’s agenda as well as how the mass communications media set the public agenda. 4. Do interest groups allow greater representation for citizens or do they inevitably allow small well organized groups to prosper at the expense of everyone who pays taxes? – They allow greater representation for particular causes, not for citizens.
And yes, they do often work with politicians to win favors at the expense of taxpayers. 5. Name two sources of interest group power and explain how an interest group lobbyist could use those powers to gain influence over government policymakers? – Two of the biggest things that can sway a vote is money and power. Professional lobbyists represent companies and corporations that control a great deal of both. Senators and representatives always have pet projects that require a great deal of money and constantly need the power to get the votes needed to initiate and fund these projects.
Our people in Congress are keenly aware they must be constantly vigilant in order to obtain funding and backing so as to make a good showing for the citizens in their voting districts. 6. Explain how & why presidents “go public”, giving at least one example of a president going public in pursuit of enacting their policy agenda. – Most importantly, presidents have the ability to “go public” in the words of to appeal to the public for support over the heads of other politicians.
The rise of the electronic media, first radio and then television, has enabled presidents to establish a direct, almost personal relationship with voters that skilled presidents It is probably advisable for presidents to use this tactic on a limited number of important issues lest it lose its impact. If used wisely, it can be decisive. George Bush before he invaded Iraq. Sample Short-Answer Questions/Suggestions 1. Be able to define a congressional committee and explain what they do and why they’re important in allowing Congress to complete its work.
– is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress). Committee membership enables members to develop specialized knowledge of the matters under their jurisdiction. As “little legislatures,” committees monitor on-going governmental operations, identify issues suitable for legislative review, gather and evaluate information, and recommend courses of action to their parent body. 2. Memorize the summaries of the important U.
S. Supreme Court decisions listed on your handout. 3. Be sure that you understand what civil liberties are (specifically and generally), how they differ from civil rights, and be able to discuss policy issues, arising from civil liberties protections (e. g. eminent domain requirements, Miranda Rights and the Exclusionary Rule). 1. Civil rights are those that are granted by a government for the protection of its citizens in respect to guaranteeing fairness and checking discrimination. 2.
Civil liberties are the basic rights guaranteed to all citizens in a country without any further speciality. 3. ’Civil rights’ means an individual’s right to get equal treatment in cases of education, housing, employment, and a lot more. ‘Civil rights’ means ‘free from discrimination or unfair treatment. ’ On the other hand, ‘civil liberties’ are broader rights guaranteed in the Constitution. 4. Unlike civil rights, civil liberties are protective in character. 5. Civil rights pertain to the concept of how an individual is treated by others.
Civil liberties pertain to the actual freedoms that an individual enjoys under a Constitution 4. Understand and be able to explain the three theories of constitutional interpretation presented in Fiorina and Peterson’s chapter on the U. S. Judiciary. 5. Be able to define agenda setting in general terms. – The art or science of controlling an agenda so as to maximize the probability of getting a favorable outcome. 6. Understand what civil service protection is (sometimes referred to as Civil Service status).
Understand the two basic principles for government employment enacted in civil service reform, and be conversant about its purposes, advantages and possible disadvantages. 6. Memorize the definition of bureaucracy that you received in our classroom discussion. – is a group of specifically non-elected officials within a government or other institution that implements the rules, laws, ideas, and functions 8. Know the formal (Constitutional) and informal powers of the Presidency. Formal Powers: powers of appointment, commander-in-chief, foreign affairs, executive clemency, emergency powers, veto informal powers:
Policy maker 9. Understand the “Power to Persuade” and “Going Public” theses, regarding how presidents exercise their informal powers discussed in class. 10. Be able to explain how the U. S. federal bureaucracy is organized (be able to explain the various units of the bureaucracy presented in our lecture discussion & in your chapter on the federal bureaucracy). A complex society requires a variety of bureaucratic organizations • Four components of Federal Bureaucracy: – Cabinet departments ( treasury, Homeland Security).
– Independent executive agencies ( EPA) – Independent regulatory agencies ( Federal Reserve Board) – Government organizations (USPS, FDIC, TVA) 11. With respect to the mass communications media agenda setting, understand. Understand framing and priming. Priming: Media provide a context for public discussion of an issue, setting the stage for audience understanding Framing: Media provide a focus and environment for reporting a story, influencing how audiences will understand or evaluate it. 13.
Be able to name the two chambers of the U. S. Congress and the two chambers of the California State legislature. – House of Reps and Senate 14. Understand how the predicate of the Declaration of Independence (“all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”) is the foundation of our civil liberties (especially with respect to the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution). 15. What is the “Bush Doctrine” in U.
S. foreign policy? – The Bush Doctrine refers to a foreign policy principle established by George W. Bush during his presidential administration. Often referred to pre-emptive in nature, it basically refers to the right of the United States to proactively strike any nation that we believe is set to attack us. 16. Be able to write out the basic argument of the Declaration of- Independence, as a formal logical argument (major premise, minor premise, and conclusion) as presented in class.
|Major premise: |[p|When government deliberately seeks to reduce the people | | |ic|under absolute despotism, the people have a right, | | |] |indeed a duty, to alter or abolish that form of | | | |government and to create new guards for their future | | | |security. | |Minor premise: | |The government of Great Britain has deliberately sought | | | |to reduce the American people under absolute despotism. | |Conclusion: | |Therefore the American people have a right, indeed a | | | |duty, to abolish their present form of government and to| | | |create new guards for their future security.
| 17. Know the three crucial periods in which the federal bureaucracy expanded, and the specific reasons for expansion of the bureaucracy during each time period. – For the purposes of this book, the term civil service refers to the civilian employees of the federal government. Wealthy men dominated the bureaucracy through the 1820s. This changed with the election of President Andrew Jackson (1828), who opened government jobs to the common people. – During the 1930s, the size of the federal bureaucracy mushroomed due to President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal agencies.
Although many were short-lived, others continue to play a role in the lives of Americans: the Social Security Administration (SSA), the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) – The federal bureaucracy deals with more than social and economic policies. A large number of agencies are responsible for protecting the American people from both foreign and domestic dangers. The national security bureaucracy includes the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 18. Understand the three fundamental goals of the Progressive movement of the early 20th century.
– Expansion of Democracy o Initiative (Voter submitted bills) o Referendum (Vote put directly to people) o Recall (Vote officials out of office) o Secret Ballot o Direct Primary o Direct Senatorial Elections – Improve the Efficiency of Government o Professional Administrators (City mayor government) o Centralize/Stream-line decision making o Eliminate Corruption – Regulate Large Corporations and Monopolies o True laissez-faire o Trust-busting o Regulation o Socialism – Promote Social Justice o Development of professional social workers o Building/Expansion of settlement houses (not tenements) o Child labor laws o Support for organized labor o Prohibition 19.
Be able to compare and contrast the executive powers of the President of the United States with those of the Governor of- California (these can be found in Scott Spitzer’s chapter in California Government in National Perspective). – In brief: – • US is a federation of states that are semi autonomous – • President is the executive head of the government whereas Governor is the executive head of his state. – • Governor exercises all those powers that are not retained by the federal government in the constitution. 20. Know the difference between foreign & domestic government policies.
– Foreign affairs are issues that concern international relations and national interests in foreign countries, while domestic affairs refer to things that are happening in politics and government in a particular country. 21. Understand what interest groups are. Also know their sources of power and the consequences of an open interest group system such as in the United States. – Interest groups are associations or organizations of individuals who share a common interest and assert their collective strength in the political process to protect — and in some cases, expand — that interest.
It allows for all type of groups to be formed and allow to bribe politicians with votes and money in exchange for laws that benefit the interest group 22. Know and understand the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States- Constitution. – First Amendment [Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, Petition Fourth Amendment [Search and Seizure Fifth Amendment [Grand Jury, Double Jeopardy, Self-Incrimination, Due Process Sixth Amendment [Criminal Prosecutions – Jury Trial, Right to Confront & to Counsel Eighth Amendment [Excess Bail or Fines, Cruel and Unusual Punishment.
Fourteenth Amendment provides a broad definition of citizenship that overruled the Supreme Court’s ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) that had held that black people could not be citizens of the United States Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen’s “race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 23. Know the types of speech that are not absolutely protected by the First Amendment and the one type of speech that is virtually always absolutely protected. Slander & libel.
* False testimony & perjury * Conspiracy to commit crimes * Treason & espionage * Pornography * Speech designed to disrupt the rights of others or harm others 24. Know the three different stages of elections. – 1. Primary elections and Caucuses 2. National Party Conventions 3. General Election 25. Understand what a Writ of Habeas Corpus is and why it is important to our civil liberties. – which requires a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court.  This ensures that a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention—that is, detention lacking sufficient cause or evidence.
26. Understand the here tools of direct democracy used in California: ballot initiatives, referenda and recalls. – is a form of democracy in which people vote on policy initiatives directly. In California we as citizens are able to put initiatives on that ballet and allow for voters to vote on the issue. 27. Understand the legal doctrine of Stare Decisis: Be able to define it & explain why it is the foundation of the Common Law legal system in the United States. – is a legal principle by which judges are obliged to respect the precedent established by prior decisions.
So lower courts and higher courts fall in line with past court cases which makes it easier to rule on cases. 28. Know the difference between a Strong Mayor and Council-Manager forms of city government – A city manager is usually hired by the council (an elected body) while a strong mayor is directly elected by the people of that city. The two functions are similar… in theory. Mayors tend to be much more cautious due to political considerations. 29. Understand the distinction between internationalism and isolationism in foreign policy.
– Internationalistic nations have deep relations and affairs with the outside world, both political and economic. – Isolationist nations are receded from having political and economic relations from the outside world. 30. Be sure you know what an officeholders constituency and term in office is (especially what they are for president, U. S. Senator and member of the U. S. House of Representatives). |President |Limited to being elected to a total of two 4-year terms | |Vice President |Unlimited 4-year terms | |Senate |Unlimited 6-year terms | |House of Representatives |Unlimited 2-year terms | 31.
Be sure you understand the basic process of how we elect Presidents (refer to chapters one and eight of America’s New- Democracy as well as article two of the U. S. Constitution). Article 2 establishes the second of the three branches of government, the Executive. Section 1 establishes the office of the President and the Vice-President, and sets their terms to be four years. Presidents are elected by the Electoral College, whereby each state has one vote for each member of Congress. Originally, the President was the person with the most votes and the Vice-President was the person with the second most, though this is later changed.
Certain minimum requirements are established again, such as a 35-year minimum age. Presidents must also be a natural-born citizen of the United States. The President is to be paid a salary, which cannot change, up or down, as long as he in his office. 32. What is the primary difference between parliamentary democracies and presidential democracies (such as the United- States)? – A presidential democracy allows the population to choose the executive, but a parliamentary democracy allows the legislature to choose the executive. 33.
Know the difference between unilateralism and multilateralism in foreign policy, and think about the ramifications of each in U. S. foreign policy. – Unilateralism is any doctrine or agenda that supports one-sided action. (Has section on Unilateralism in the United States) Multilateralism is a term in international relations that refers to multiple countries working in concert (together as one) on a given issue. 34. What are the primary units of the federal bureaucracy? (Be able to list them and explain how they are connected to one another).
• – Federal bureaucracy is divided into fifteen different executive departments and hundreds of agencies, bureaus, boards, authorities, and administrations • Bureaucracy also includes independent agencies and government corporations like the post office 36. With respect to civil liberties, understand the Constitutional prohibition of Ex Post Facto laws. – An ex post facto law is one that is made not to punish an act that wasn’t illegal at the time it was committed. 38. Understand the difference between fiscal and monetary policy.
– Monetary policy is typically implemented by a central bank, while fiscal policy decisions are set by the national government. However, both monetary and fiscal policy may be used to influence the performance of the economy in the short run. 39. Understand what California’s plural executive is and how it differs from the national executive branch. – A plural executive is formed when there are several officials that fill the executive administrative function. Unlike the executive branch were all the power is given only to the president. 40.
Understand how state and local governments arrange their institutions sometimes similar to the national government, and sometimes different from the national government. 41. Be conversant with the current events that have developed in Syria, Iran and Pakistan, as well as the recent elections in France this semester. Important Textbook Terms 1. Federalism- A division of labor between central government and states 2. Lobbying- A group of persons engaged in trying to influence legislators or other public officials in favor of a specific cause 3.
Proportional representation voting systems- A party wins seat depending on what percentage they win. 4. Single-member, simple plurality voting systems (or “Winner-takes- All” electoral systems)- Person with the most votes wins. 5. Political Action Committee (PACs)- is any organization in the United States that campaigns for or against a candidate, ballot initiatives or legislation. 6. Soft Money – Political donations made in such a way as to avoid federal regulations or limits, as by donating to a party organization rather than to a particular candidate or campaign.
7. Separation of Powers- Separation between, the executive, judicial, and legislative branch. 8. Prior Restraint Doctrine- is censorship imposed, usually by a government, on expression before the expression actually takes place. An alternative is to allow the expression to take place and to take appropriate action afterward, if the expression is found to violate the law, regulations, or other rules. 9. Stare Decisis- is a legal principle by which judges are obliged to respect the precedent established by prior decisions.
10. Civil Service Protection (same as reform or status)- 11. Establishment Clause ( of the First Amendment) Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion 12. Due Process Clause (of the 5th & 14th Amendments)- An established course for judicial proceedings or other governmental activities designed to safeguard the legal rights of the individual. 13. Equal Protection Clause (of the 14th Amendment)- no state shall … deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 14.
Commerce Clause- To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, 15. Judicial Review- is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review (and possible invalidation) by the judiciary. 16. Bureaucracy- is a group of specifically non-elected officials within a government or other institution that implements the rules, laws, ideas, and functions 17. Executive Orders- Orders given by the president. 18. Executive Privilege- President able to withhold information from congress.