Porter’s five forces model is a framework for the industry analysis and development of business strategy. Three of Porter’s five forces refers to rivalry from external/outside sources such as micro environment, macro environment and rest are internal threats. It draws ahead Industrial Organization economics to develop five forces that conclude the competitive intensity and consequently attractiveness of a market place or industry. Attractiveness in this framework refers to the generally overall industry profitability. An "unattractiveness" in industry is one in which the mixture of these five forces proceed to constrain behind overall profitability. An extremely unattractive industry would be one moving toward "pure competition", in which existing profits for all companies are moving down to zero.
1.Bargaining power of suppliers
The bargaining power of suppliers is low. There are various types of suppliers in the vehicles industry, including the cooling system, electrical system, braking system and fuel supply system distributed across the globe. However, most vehicle manufactures own many interchangeable suppliers, and also have the ability to produce the components by their own in the short time. Thus, the suppliers do not own the power to change the price.
2.Bargaining power of buyers
The Bargaining power of buyers is high. Today, buyers have a lot of information channel, such as the internet, where can easily find the proper vehicle. And, the preferences of the private consumers are important to the vehicle corporations. If automobile Company increases one type, they can also choose other type or the cheaper one. And the vehicle’s buyers can easily find the substitutes, such as walking, and bus.
3.Threat of new entrants
The entrants can not enter to the automotive industry easily, as automobiles are special products that require a large amount of money on the design, electronic functions, and safety issues. And another important issue is the brand loyalty in the car market. Vehicle firms always benefit the brand value, and decrease the consumer sensitivity about the price. For example, General Motors provided $1000 to the Saab owners who planed to buy the 2008 model.
4. Rivalry among competitors
The competition in the auto industry is strong. The top eight auto companies have occupy large part of global revenues, and these automobile manufacturers strengthened the globalization and consolidation across the worldwide range. The competition is not only between the corporations, but between the governments. Governments established protection laws to protect the products of each own production. For example, U.S. government increased the additional tariffs on Chinese tires in 2009. And the Toyota vehicles were recalled because the U.S. government investigated into the accelerator pedal problems.
5. Threat of substitutes
The threat of the substitutes is high. There are a lot of substitutes in the automobile industry. When the price of the vehicles rises, the substitutes will emerge, there are many types of equipment that can take the place of vehicles, such bus, subway, bicycle and even walking.