Politics and Goverments

• Hathaipun Soonthornpipit (?????????? ?????????? ) • E-mail: [email protected] com / Tel: 091-009-6610 • Ph. D. (candidate) Development Administration (International Program) – National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA) • MA. Political Science (International Relations) – Kansas State University, USA. • BS. Political Science – University of Central Missouri, USA. 2 Grading Standard & Required Text A = 80 – 100 B+ = 75 – 79 B = 70 – 74 C+ = 65 – 69 C = 60 – 54 D+ = 55 – 59 D = 50 – 54 F = 0 – 49 Magstadt, Thomas. 2009. Understanding Politics: Ideas, Institutions, and Issues.

8thed. Wadsworth Cengage Learning 3 The Study of Politics • The word “politics” originates from the Greek word “Polis” which means a city. In other words, politics is the study of a city. i. e. , state. • The Oxford English Dictionary defines politics as: “the science dealing with form, organization and administration of a state, or part of one, and with the regulations of its relations with other states. ” • Plato (428-427) & Aristotle (384-322 B. C. ) – The Polis existed to seek its common good, civic virtue and moral perfection.

They viewed politics as the moral purposes that decision-makers ought to pursue. 4 The Study of Politics • Aristotle – The ways in which officials were selected for governing the state, the manner in which their authority was determined and the nature of ends or interests pursued. • Robert Dahl – “Any persistent pattern of human relationships that involves, to a significant extent, power, rule or authority. ” • David Easton – “Political acts” = “authoritative allocate values in a society. ” 5 Identifying Politics.

1) Politics everywhere involves conflict which is inherent in the human nature itself. Conflict may arise, in part, from scarcity. It may arise because people differ in their values. What one person consider good may be judged as evil by another. Most political conflict is “group conflict. ” Conflicts generally take place among groups rather than among individuals. The size of the group can vary from a single family to the international community. 2) 6 Identifying Politics 1) The study of politics involves understanding how people govern themselves and the consequences of the political process.

One important reason for studying politics is to search out conditions under which groups can achieve their goals peacefully and effectively. Politics is the means by which people debate and resolve the most important value in a society. 7 Definition of Political Science • Aristotle – Political Science was a “master science” because it gave knowledge and understanding to those who controlled the state. • Today, political science was redefined as “the science of the state” or “a branch of social sciences dealing with theory, organization, government and practice of the state. ” (E. G.Catlin).

• Willoughby – “the science which has for its object the ascertainment of political facts and arrangement of them in systematic order as determined by the logical and causal relations who exist between them. ” 8 Definition of Political Science • Harold D. Lasswell – It is a study of “who gets what, when, how. ” • The Who = Political leaders, parties, interest groups and voters, among others, who participate in the political process. • The How = Activities like voting, campaigning, and lobbying in the political game. • The What = What government does as a result of the game or public policy.

9 Scope of Political Science • Generally, the areas of political science include: 1. Political theory • Refers mainly to the history of political ideas beginning usually with the ancient Greeks and extending to present day political thinkers (Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel, Morgenthau, Machiavelli, Marx, Montesquieu, Weber etc. ) 10 Scope of Political Science 1. • International relations The focus is on topics such as foreign and national security policies, diplomacy, warfare among states, international law and international organizations etc.

Comparative politics and government The focus is on the similarities and differences among states as regards their executive, legislative and judicial bodies, constitutions, foreign policies or political parties etc. 11 2. • Scope of Political Science 1. • • Public administration In general, deals with methods of managing and administrating government and execution of public policy. Deals specifically with how to evaluate various type of public policy and analyze the process of policy making that leads to policy decision and its implementation. 12 Approaches to the Study of Politics.

• Normative Approach – Deals largely with normative questions like “How should humans live? ” Political philosophers since the time of Plato in 400 B. C. have asked questions, “What is justice? ” and “What kind of government is best for realize justice? ” • Political philosophy puts great emphasis on ethics in making political choices. It also teaches people to use logic to find out the results of some political act and to anticipate the likely outcomes of a social choice. 13 Approaches to the Study of Politics • Behavioral Approach – more empirical and less normative.

• The approach is not interested in how citizens “should” behave, but in how they “actually” behave. (who votes? and “why did they vote the way they did? ”) • This approach has become one of the dominant trends in contemporary political science. It employs various research design and techniques, statistical analyses, and constructing experiments to test hypotheses. 14 Approaches to the Study of Politics • Public Choice Approach – also known as rational choice model. It borrows methods and models from economics and a branch of mathematics called “game theory.

” • The approach is based on two assumptions: 1) 2) It assumes that political actors are rational and they calculate the costs and benefits of their actions and choose the one that leads to the best outcome for them. It assumes that the institutional setting within which an individual acts influences those costs and benefits. 15 Why Study Politics? • Why should college student study political science? • The primary objective of the political science college curriculum is not to prepare students for careers in politics. • The primary objective of political science is “citizenship training.

” • Its aim is to equip students to discharge the obligations of democratic citizenship. Its aim is to better the condition of human beings by helping them to realize their rights and obligations. 16 Why Study Politics? • The study enables students to know how governments operate, what interests and forces are behind particular policies, what the results of such policies are likely to be, who their elected representatives are and what they stand for, who makes the decisions, for what reason and in whose interest etc. • Hence, it is a vital part of any undergraduate’s education.

• It helps us learn about our ability to bring positive change! 17 Power: Fundamental Concepts of Politics • The importance of power – governments need power to make and enforce rules, maintain peace, security, promote economic and political development of the country etc. • R. H. Tawney – “the capacity of an individual, or group of individuals, to modify the conduct of other individuals or groups in the manner in which he [the power holder] desires. ” • In politics, power in use assumes three forms: coercion, inducement and persuasion. 18 Power: Fundamental Concepts of Politics

• Joseph Nye – Hard power refers to the means and instruments of brute force or coercion, primarily military and economic clout. Soft power is attractive rather than coercive: it refers to “the important ability to get others to want what you want. ” • Political power can also flow from wealth, personal charisma, ideology, religion, and many other sources, including the moral standing of a particular individual or group in society. 19 Power: Fundamental Concepts of Politics SOURCES OF POWER • Force – “power flows from the barrel of a gun” (Mao Zedong) • Wealth – recognized as an effective source of power.

• Expertise – “knowledge is power” • Position – known as legitimate power, it is based on the follower’s belief that the power-holder has right to influence him and he has an obligation to follow. • Popular support – known as referent power, it is based on the follower’s identification with the leader. 20 Power and Corruption • Lord John Acton – “Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. ” • Most people do not want to give power to any individual, fearing that the power will be abused.

• Greeks believed that a person of reason, who know what was good, would never abuse power and that the irrational person should never be given power. 21 Power and Corruption • Absolute monarchs were no more corrupt than those whose powers were limited. • It was argued that if the executive, legislative, and judicial powers are united in the same person, or in the same body, there will be abuse of authority and the system will be tyrannical as was case with absolute monarchy. • The individuals who are sufficiently powerful to accomplish their tasks do not need to be unethical. 22 Authority: Fundamental Concepts of.

Politics • Authority is closely associated with power; authority is formal or legal as distinguished from personal power. • Authority can be defined as the legitimate exercise of power through established institutions, and according to the rules that are accepted by the people as being right and proper. • It is power assigned to a position by the popular accepted ground rules for the operation of the political system. 23 Legitimate Authority • It is possible to rule without popular mandate, public approval, or legal justification. • However, claiming authority is useless if people refuse to accept it (unauthorized ruler).

• Hence, it is better for rulers to have public approval than not to have it. • Ex – Police officer who arrests criminal exercises legitimate power. On the contrary, a hijacker may have power over the crew and passengers of an airplane but he has no authority. 24 State: Fundamental Concepts of Politics • The central concern of political science is the state – it is the means through which people can meet their necessities of life and can strive for good life. • Aristotle – “Man is by nature a political being; it is his nature to live in a polis” wherein alone he could attain his highest moral nature.

• Plato – state existed for the purpose of seeking common good and moral perfection. • Karl Marx (1818 – 1883) – The state is a product of class contradictions and class struggle and is controlled by the economically dominant class. 25 Definition of the State • Max Weber (1864 – 1920) – The state is a “human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical violence in a given territory. ” • Robert Dahl (1961) – Viewed state as a collection of individuals occupying role positions (those of governing authority) and acting as a group to govern.

• Anthony Giddens (1985) – “a political organization whose rule is territorially ordered and which is able to mobilize the means of violence to sustain that rule. ” 26 Elements of the State • State refers to an assemblage of people occupying a definite territory under an organized government and subject to no outside control. 1. Population – it is the people who make the state, without them there can be none. Population must be large enough to make state and sustain it (Vatican 1000 / China 1. 3 billion) 2.

Territory – there is no state without a fixed territory and no territory that is no part of some state. The territory of the state is considered to extend to the oceans, air space, and underground (Russia 17 millions sq. km. ) 27 Elements of the State 1. 2. Government – Max Weber states that a government is a agency that has a “monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory. ” Sovereignty – the state is the supreme decisionmaking power within geographically delineated frontier and is subject to external authority only by its consent.

Internal sovereignty – the right of state to make laws applying within its boundaries. External sovereignty – the recognition in international law that a state has jurisdiction (authority) over a territory. 28 • • Nation-State • Nation – distinctive group of people who share common background: geographical location, history, racial or ethnic characteristics, religion, language, culture, and belief in common political ideas. • Nation-state – refers to a political institution that combines the concepts of nation with state.

It refers to a state inhabited by people who identify themselves as a nation because of sharing culture, history, language, ethnicity or other factors. • Stateless Nations – Palestinians, Kurds, Chechnya, Karens, Basque Country, Rohingya etc. 29 Origin of the State • Social Contract Theory (Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau) 1. 2. People originally lived in a state of nature. This imaginary state of nature was pre-social and hence a condition of perpetual war (Hobbes) or pre-political in the absence of a common recognized authority (Locke and Rousseau).

It was not an organized society. To escape from this unsatisfactory and intolerable condition, people entered into a contract with his fellow men. As a result of contract, covenant or agreement among people in a civil society was established where the laws of the state prevailed. 30 3. 4. Origin of the State • Historical or Evolution Theory 1. Human being are by nature social animals. From the beginning of human history, they lived in society. 2. The state is the product of growth, a slow and steady evolution extending over a long period of time. 3.

Family was the earliest form of society, and kinship or blood relationship was the basis of society. 31 Origin of the State 1. 2. 3. In course of time, families expanded into clans, clans into tribes, and tribes into larger society. Religion became the basis of social organization. War and migration also played important role in the formation of state. Finally, it is the political consciousness that played the most important role in building up the state. 32 State in the West • The two historical events which marked the beginning of a new period in the formation of states.

• The treaty of Westphalia in 1648 began the era of the territorial state in which people shifted their loyalties from the ideal of a universal Christian commonwealth (Christendom) to the fatherland. • The French Revolution of 1789 began the era of the national state in which the state became identified with a particular nationality group, and nationalism became the dominant belief system in the world. 33 State in the West • The end of Thirty Years’ War in 1648 (Sweden and France as the challengers, Spain and the dying Holy Roman Empire as the defender of status quo, and newly independent Netherlands) .