Political turmoil of Europe

For the wars brought about an integration and dependence on America through the Dawes and Young Plans as well as Marshall aid in 1949, as well as between the wars, the Wall Street Crash in 1929 affected the entirety of Europe. For the build up throughout the wars of Americanisation over Europe dominated the identity of its citizens through another significant impact, the Cold War, which spanned 1945-1991 ripping a divide throughout east and west Europe and leaving a shadow of communism ruling behind the iron curtain of the USSR.

This impact came through the political aspects of European identity changing due to the nature of the wars, "In the aftermath of the first world war fascist dictators emerged in Italy, Germany, Portugal, Spain and, for a time during the Second World War, some of its occupied territories. "8 These roots began after the French Revolution, but emerged once again after the disruption of the First World War, this impact was great, as before the war Mussolini had been on the far left, supporting neutrality, but fell out over the intervention in war with other socialists.

These impacts through the wars affected the political turmoil of Europe and with the intervention of American politics and diplomacy Americanisation held court over Europe. However to counteract this, and the economic reliance on America the European Community was founded to provide free trade, incentives and access to European resources. However the cold war was also had a surmountable effect on European change, following 'geopolitical upheavals of 1989-91 the balance of power which had existed since 1945 in Europe, was upset.

Marking the end of the post-war era'9 Thus the wars had a significant impact lasting throughout the twentieth century, this impact led nations such as France and Germany in to forming a union which would bring stability and, after the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, and the collapse of the USSR in 1991 allow to bring the eastern European countries up to date through modernisation and so incorporate them in to the 'European ideal' therefore this common European identity will be shared through the embracing and acknowledgement of a shared history, although turbulent it allows for a deeper recognition of one another's turmoil and history and provides the citizens with a shared experience as well as a shared will to avoid conflict. Thereby the world wars were extremely significant in provoking a reaction to embrace a European culture, and through nostalgia, such as films and television series such as Dads Army as Richards suggests, nostalgia towards the war will provoke this identity in to re-emerging.

1 Jeffery Richards, Films and British National Identity, From dickens to dads army, (Manchester University Press, 1997) P351 2 Emsley, et al, War, Peace and Social Change in Twentieth-Century Europe, (Open University Press, 1989) P129 3 H. Stuart Hughes, Contemporary Europe: A History (Englewood Cliffs, N. J. Prentice-Hall, 1971, 3rd edition) P1 4 Amin Maalouf, On Identity, trans Barbara Bray (London: Harvill, 2000) Pp10-11 5 Alan Palmer, The Penguin Dictionary of Modern Europe, (1789-1945), (Penguin Books, 1983) P275 6 John J. Gumperz, Introduction to language and social identity, (1993) P1 7 Jeffery Richards, Films and British National Identity, From dickens to dads army, (Manchester University Press, 1997) P351-3 8 David Welch, Modern European History, (Routledge, 1999), P94