Political Science

The origins of American government can be traced back to the cultures and life of early European colonists and the indigenous peoples of the new world. The colonists journeyed to North America for a variety of reasons. One of the main reasons was to find better opportunities for wealth. Later on the pilgrims left Europe aboard the mayflower to find religious freedoms. Today’s modern day government offers both opportunities for wealth and success, as well as religious freedoms. As the colonists set up systems of government, they sought more independence from the British monarchy which was accomplished through the revolutionary war.

Throughout the world, different nations use different forms of government. The great philosopher Aristotle types of government by who rules and in whose interest its in. the first type of government I will mention is a monarchy. In monarchy, the rule is with one hereditary king of queen with the interest being with all of the people in the nation. This type of government is what we see in England today. The early colonists fought for their independence against this monarchy. Another form of government called totalitarianism is much different than a monarchy in one key aspect being for whose interest the ruler is in.

In this form of government, the ruler runs the country only to benefit him, and has no interest in the benefits of the people living in the nation. This form of government today exists in North Korea under Kim Jong-Un. In this government, Kim Jong-Un exercise complete power and his power is unlimited. The individuals have no personal rights of liberties. Another form of government seen around the world is called an oligarchy. In this form of government the right to participate depends on the possession of wealth, social status, military positions, or other achievements.

When forming our own government, the colonists originally rejected a system with a strong ruler such as exists in the British monarchy. The colonists viewed the formation of a republican form of government was closer to their values. The framers sought to create a political system with the people at the center of the power. With that, a democracy was formed which is a system of government that gives power to the people, whether directly or through elected representatives.

There are many different functions of the American government. The first on is establishing justice which has to due with a system of laws which the people must follow in order to keep the peace. Another is to ensure domestic tranquility in crisis for example the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Another is to provide for the common defense for its citizens. The last two functions are promoting the general welfare, and lastly securing the blessings of liberty. The four functions of political ideology are explanation, evaluation, orientation, and political program.

Somebody who is a conservative according to William Safire’s New Political Dictionary “is a defender of the status quo, when change becomes necessary in tested institutions or practices, prefers that it comes slowly, and in moderation”. Someone who has an opposite political ideology is a liberal who seeks to use the government to change the political, economical, and social status quo. And a moderate is somebody who stands in the middle between both ideologies. A moderate might have a liberal view on a social issue, but may have a conservative view on a economical issue.