Political power and organizational effectiveness


_Toc354331092 \h 25CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc354331093 \h 27 EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis report makes it evident that the weakness of representative political institutions can lead to a preponderant bureaucracy which distresses political process formulation. Our findings also support Administrative thinker, Fred W. Riggs’ view that the political function tends to be seized, in considerable measure, by bureaucrats in a society with weak political institutions. Political processes aim at the formulation and administration of public policy usually by interaction between social groups and political institutions.

Democracy envisages a political process which proclaims equity in distribution of resources and their management through organization and networking between societal participants building on potential opportunities. An ideal democracy demands a balanced and collaborative ratio of legislation, executive power and judiciary. Media and other social regulating participants put the added on flavor to envisage the true power of people for themselves by themselves. All these organizations must be held accountable for their performance to obtain synergetic outcomes.

Factual findings show that an imbalance between the powers and effectiveness of legislature and bureaucracy renders the political system futile. Ineffective political institutions and misuse of political powers act towards ineffective working of administrative institutions. Deterioration of two important pillars of state result in decline in public – private partnership agenda, infrastructure development is hindered due to inappropriate allocation of resources by administration. Lawlessness, terrorism and social turmoil results from bad legislation and delayed justice. The international status of nation is.

1 / 18 put at stake and so is the independence. Decline in political power and bad administration is caused by ineffective strategic planning and prioritization methodology, non – cohesive visions of stakeholders, anarchism, disproportionate allocation of resources, the red tape, merit compromises, illiteracy, religious extremism, racism and sectarianism and women disempowerment. Downturn in political power is caused by lack of mutual harmony among elected politicians and executive bureaucrats.

The battle of conflicts between administration and law makers results in stagnancy of targeted action and the implementation strategy becomes reactive than proactive. At later phases of this conflict and reactive approach, this results in administrative fiasco, deprival of public rights and compromise on independence. Violence in public groups gives rise to the social turmoil and becomes a constant dilemma of poor governance. Investments in development projects are wasted due to lack of strategic planning and wrong prioritization. The absence of accountability among the public organizations leads the countries towards the vicious circle of economic and administrative crisis.

Democracy, liberty and the rule of law together represent the troika that is universally accepted now as the index of a civil society. Democracy signifies a government of, by and for the people. The protection of individual liberties follows the notion of democracy as a natural corollary. This entails the espousal of a methodical configuration of laws by which society might be regulated and different conflicting interests can be harmonized to the fullest extent. This is why “the rule of law” is indispensable. It envisages the pre-eminence of law as opposed to anarchy or capricious dictates.

It involves equal accountability of all before the law irrespective of high or low status. POLITICAL PROCESS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONSVISION 1 CONCEPTION OF POLITICAL PROCESS ADMINISTRATIVE STRATEGY ACCOUNTABILITY CONCEPTION OF POLITICAL PROCESSPOLITICAL PROCESS – SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Politics is the struggle of “who gets what, when, how. ” This struggle may be as modest as competing interest groups fighting over control of a small municipal budget or as overwhelming as a military stand-off between international superpowers. This leads to setting standards for formulating the political process for public administration.

Political process is the interaction between three components – interests, organizations and opportunity – explains a contender’s level of organization and collective action. Interests represent the potential gains from participation; organization, the level of unified identity and network; and opportunity, the amount of political power, the likelihood of repression, and the vulnerability of the target. Political processes aim at the formulation and administration of public policy usually by interaction between social groups and political institutions or between political leadership and public opinion.

An ideal political process is inevitable when choices are to be made for us rather than at our discretion. HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF POLITICAL PROCESS Humans’ evolutionary history as a social primate and the adaptive value of dominance and deference and accepting hierarchical structures provides reasons for prevalence of authoritarianism over the chapters of history where alongside, cultural and political values march against their genetically influenced hierarchical tendencies and aim at equality and unanimity of rights. 49599853721100 In some countries, the term “government” connotes only the executive branch.

However, this usage fails to differentiate between despotic and democratic forms of government. In authoritarian systems, such as a dictatorship or absolute monarchy, where the different powers of government are assumed by one person or small oligarchy, the executive branch ceases to exist since there is no other branch with which to share separate but equal governmental powers. 00 In some countries, the term “government” connotes only the executive branch. However, this 2 / 18 usage fails to differentiate between despotic and democratic forms of government.

In authoritarian systems, such as a dictatorship or absolute monarchy, where the different powers of government are assumed by one person or small oligarchy, the executive branch ceases to exist since there is no other branch with which to share separate but equal governmental powers. Democracy allows eligible citizens to participate equally—either directly or through elected representatives—in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. It encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self- determination.

Democracy is viable with special concatenation of social, economic, historical and political factors. It consequently requires very special “enabling conditions” before it can become viable which includes and is not limited to functioning government institutions, internal peace (e. g. , no civil wars), adequate levels of economic development, adequate levels of education, existence of basic liberties, lack of previous authoritarian regime, pro-democratic “out-elite”, pro-democratic civic dispositions and religious, ethnic, tribal, and racial conflict is absent.

Led by Cleisthenes, Athenians established what is generally held as the first democracy in 508-507 BC where all eligible citizens had rights to speak and vote in the assembly except women, slaves and foreigners. The direct democracy mode evolved to representative democracy in Roman republic where people voted for representatives who then vote on policy initiatives as opposed to Greek direct democracy in which people voted on policy initiatives directly. In North America, the English rebels migrated in 1620, established colonies in New England whose local governance was democratic and which contributed to the democratic development of the United States, although these local assemblies had some small amounts of devolved power the ultimate authority was held by the Crown and the English Parliament.

During the Medieval Ages, there were various systems involving elections or assemblies, although often only involving a small part of the population. Magna Carta was the charter of liberty and political rights obtained from King John of England by his rebellious barons at Runnymede in 1215. In nineteenth century, several revolutions broke out in Europe as rulers were confronted with popular demands for liberal constitutions and more democratic government.

In United States, Slavery was a social and economic institution and gave birth to civil right movements. Democracy itself has beautiful roots in Islam, classically. The Caliphate run by election under the agreement of senior members of the community based on qualifications for the post. The public policy culminates from the precepts set forth in the Quran and the example set by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Democratic implications are underscored in Surat al-Shura, which suggests that the only people dear to ALLAH are those who, among other things, “conduct their affairs by mutual consultation”.

Islamic law incorporates the use of rational, logical, and independent opinion sustained by the spirit of Ijtihad (exertion or striving). POLITICAL EVOLUTION IN PAKISTAN Early in the history of the state of Pakistan (12 March 1949), a parliamentary resolution (the Objectives Resolution) was adopted in accordance with the vision of the founding fathers of the Pakistan Movement (Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Liaquat Ali Khan) proclaiming: Sovereignty belongs to ALLAH alone but HE has delegated it to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by HIM as a sacred trust. 47707553936365When informed of the devastation the British institutions were suffering from amidst the crisis brought about by the World War, Prime Minister Winston Churchill is reported to have asked: ‘Is the Judiciary functioning well?

‘ Upon being told that it was functioning normally, Churchill claimed that then there was no danger to the country. Churchill was right, as the Judiciary is the custodian of rights and the guardian of liberties, the continuity of which ensures the continued allegiance of the citizens to the state.

00When informed of the devastation the British institutions were suffering from amidst the crisis brought about by the World War, Prime Minister Winston Churchill is reported to have asked: ‘Is the 3 / 18 Judiciary functioning well? ‘ Upon being told that it was functioning normally, Churchill claimed that then there was no danger to the country. Churchill was right, as the Judiciary is the custodian of rights and the guardian of liberties, the continuity of which ensures the continued allegiance of the citizens to the state. The State shall exercise its powers and authority through the elected representatives of the people.

The principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed. Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings of Islam as set out in the Quran and Sunnah. Provision shall be made for the religious minorities to freely profess and practice their religions and develop their cultures. This resolution later became key source of inspiration for the writers of the Constitution of Pakistan and is included in it as preamble.

The Constitution is supreme document of Pakistan which identifies the state (its physical existence and its borders), people and their essential rights, state’s constitutional law and orders, and also the constitutional structure and establishment of the organizations and the Country’s armed forces. In early three decades of Pakistan, the strength of political and regional cleavages worked against the development of national political parties. Uneven economic development produced high level of political instability. Parliamentary politics in Pakistan led in turn to military dominated politics from 1958.

The constitutional aspirations of Martial – law administrator were a fiasco due to miscalculated aim of political stability through bureaucratic discipline, futility of indirect election and art of self – government under scheme of basic democracies. It also pointed out the lack of understanding of international affairs strategy where a misjudgment made the nation to pay its cost in form of war. The regime was followed by resign of one Martial – law Administrator and takeover of authority by his successor.

The political turmoil of East Pakistan drifted the country towards civil war, followed by military action in East Pakistan and the separation of East Pakistan. From 1970 onward started the journey towards the implementation of democracy being a government of people for them, by them. First elections of Pakistan were held. The first elected political party came up with a manifesto of following Islam and nurturing democracy while aiming at a socialist economy with People as source of power. Large scale nationalization of industry and financial institutions resulted in extension of bureaucracy. Land reforms were introduced to uproot the agrarian systems of feudal and unjust over lordship of the God’s earth.

First elected Prime Minister announced the Administrative reforms in the civil service of Pakistan. ADMINISTRATIVE STRATEGYThe Administrative structure of Public organizations as envisioned by the Administrative reforms 1973 is to abolish the colonial structure of administration making it the elitist cadre of Civil Service of Pakistan to an egalitarian spirit. Civil service is divided into 22 grades extended to all the service of state. The Constitution of 1973 set forth functional distribution of powers, rights and responsibilities among what is known to be Pillars of states: Elected Parliament, executive Power and independent Judiciary.

The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers. PARLIAMENT – THE SUPREME BODY The essence of a Parliamentary system is the responsibility and the answerability of the Executive before the Legislature. As the Parliament is elected directly by the people, whose representatives elect from among themselves the Executive which is answerable to the Legislature, this makes the Parliament a supreme body.

The organic linkages between the Legislature and the Executive, facilitated and strengthened by the parliamentary committees – where the legislators and the Government ministers deliberate on the policies proposed and pursued by the Government – serve as a source of Parliament’s monitoring of the Executive functions. 4 / 18 EXECUTIVE POWER The Executive is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state. The executive branch executes the law. The separation of powers system is designed to distribute authority away from the executive branch—an attempt to preserve individual liberty in response to tyrannical leadership throughout history.

The Executive officer is not supposed to make laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). The role of the Executive is to enforce the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judicial system. Executive power is assisted by modern time bureaucracy being the administrative unit of government that carries out the decisions of the legislature or democratically-elected representation of a state.

In Max Weber’s “Economy and Society”, Weber describes six bureaucratic values that are vital in obtaining a functioning and self-sufficient business. These six characteristics include imperial positions, rule-governed decision making, professionalism, chain of command, defined responsibilities, and bounded authority 4994910-140335The decisive reason for the advance of bureaucratic organization has always been its purely technical superiority over any other form of organization — Max Weber 00The decisive reason for the advance of bureaucratic organization has always been its purely technical superiority over any other form of organization — Max Weber JUDICIARY Judiciary is the third pillar of the state. It ensures the proper functioning of the Constitution and oversees the implementation of the laws.

A vigilant and active judiciary ensures the continuity of the constitutional system and defends citizens’ rights against all types of encroachment. Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the judiciary generally does not make law (which is the responsibility of the legislature), or enforce law (which is the responsibility of the executive), but rather interprets law and applies it to the facts of each case. This branch of the state is often tasked with ensuring equal justice under law.

The supreme body of Judiciary is the “Supreme court” which works together with lower courts. OTHER PARTICIPANTS IN STATE ADMINISTRATION – ARMED FORCES, MEDIA The Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee deals with all problems bearing on the military aspects of state security and is charged with integrating and coordinating the three services; Army, Navy & Air force. In peacetime, its principal function is planning; in time of war, its chairman is the principal staff officer to the President in the supervision and conduct of the war.

The secretariat of the committee serves as the principal link between the service headquarters and the Ministry of Defense in addition to coordinating matters between the services. The three branches within the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee deal with planning, training, and logistics. Affiliated with the committee are the offices of the Engineer-in-Chief, the Director of Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), and the Director of Inter- Services Public Relations (ISPR). ACCOUNTABILITYEffective planning and efficient implementation is only possible with a system of control.

This is about stipulating every authority vested in people with responsibility and holding them accountable for their authorities. Government places regulatory bodies over the goods and services providers by classifying the society in clusters. The Media plays an important role as an informative bridge between governing bodies and general public. The following clusters play an important role: Cluster Regulator Companies Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) Public listed entities Registered Stock Exchanges Monopolies Competition Commission of Pakistan (CCP) 5 / 18.

Oil & gas producers Oil & Gas Regulatory Authority (OGRA) Banking State Bank of Pakistan Utility stores Utilities Stores Corporation (USC) Power production & distribution National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) Law & order Police department, Traffic police Media &Telecommunication Print & Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) Public Finances Public Accounts Committees (PAC) Auditor General of Pakistan (ICAP) Corruption National Accountability Bureau (NAB) Bureaucracy Federal and Provincial Ombudsmen Government employees Federal and Provincial Public Service Commissions (FPSC/ PPSC)

These are a few examples of many such authorities which have been given the prime function of regulation and monitoring of administrative organizations, Government and general public. Media is considered to the fourth pillar of a matured and powerful democracy. It’s a source of awareness, monitoring, competition and provides a platform to the social participants. The freedom of media is the guarantee of success of republic government. Media provide the forward and backward feedback which becomes prime source data for all members of society.

Media plays an important role to spread accountability among Administration, Legislature, Bureaucracy and Judiciary. The collaboration of all the participants mentioned above results in what is presumed to be a successful democracy. EVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS AND MALFUNCTION OF POLITICAL POWERFACTS 2 DOWNTURN OF DEMOCRACY FACT FILE STATE OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS DOWNTURN OF DEMOCRACYMuch historical and statistical work tells us that in low and lower- middle income countries in particular like Pakistan, democracy is much more likely to die when the economy is shrinking than when it is not.

And a severe economic crisis, such as a depression or rampant inflation, breeds fertile conditions for the rise of anti-democratic demagogues and extremist parties. FACTS ABOUT GRADUAL DOWNTURN OF DEMOCRACY Broad economic downturns are generally not good times for democracy in the world, and the current global financial crisis will probably be no exception. Two-thirds of all the breakdowns of democracy since the third wave began in 1974 have occurred in the last nine years, and in a number of strategically important states like Russia, Nigeria, Venezuela, Pakistan and Thailand. Many of these countries have not really returned to democracy.

And a number of countries linger in a twilight zone between democracy and authoritarianism. While normative support for democracy has grown around the world, it remains in many countries, tentative and uneven, or is even eroding under the weight of growing public cynicism about corruption and the self-interested behavior of parties and politicians. Only about half of the public, on average, in Africa and Asia meets a rigorous, multidimensional test of support for democracy. Levels of distrust for political institutions—particularly political parties and legislatures, and politicians in general—are very high in Eastern Europe and Latin America, and in parts of Asia.

6 / 18 In many countries, 30-50 percent of the public or more is willing to consider some authoritarian alternative to democracy, such as military or one-man rule. And where governance is bad or elections are rigged and the public cannot rotate leaders out of power, skepticism and defection from democracy grow. What we see in global public opinion now are doubts about democracy, and often widespread distrust of elected officials and political parties who are seen to be corrupt and self-absorbed.

What we do not see is broad support for any alternative—that is, authoritarian—model of government A prolonged global economic crisis could also further strain social divisions and undermine state capacities in a way that would make it more difficult to return to real democracy in countries like Pakistan and Thailand. This leaves about 50 democracies and near democracies—including such big and strategically important states as Turkey, Ukraine, Indonesia, the Philippines, South Africa, certainly Pakistan and Bangladesh, and possibly even Mexico—where the survival of constitutional rule cannot be taken for granted.

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS (IPDF) Historically infrastructure projects have been mainly in government domain. Governments have managed, financed, owned and operated these projects. However given the budgetary pressures on the governments, and an inability to manage these projects efficiently, governments are now encouraging the private sector to play a greater role in building and managing infrastructure projects. In May 2006, the Ministry of Finance, established the IPDF to facilitate the origination, preparation and closure of PPP projects and to determine and meet the funding gap necessary for making PPP transactions commercially viable.

The IPDF will act as a catalyst in the development of PPP projects to assure value for money to the beneficiaries and to ensure that the private sector makes adequate returns and provide quality service. While In the US, ‘market rigging’ scandals in the Power sector led to a rollback in industry privatization. In Georgia, the Atlanta municipality reversed the privatization of the city’s water services, after public protest at too fast tariff increases. In Texas, there is a vigorous debate whether a recent policy to toll public roads should be extended.

In the UK, Rail track has been taken back by the Government after Privatization, as has Wales Water supply. In the developing world, Power and water have had patchy records. Some countries have seen cancellation of water PPPs, while in others there has been extensive renegotiation of the original Power contracts at the Government’s behest. 3489960-9969500PREVALENCE OF MORALITYETHICAL VALUES In some of the countries, like Pakistan, the demise of democracy would probably come, if it happened, not as a result of a blatant overthrow of the current system, but rather via a gradual executive strangling of political pluralism and freedom, or a steady decline in state capacity and political order due to rising criminal and ethnic violence.

Such circumstances would also swallow whatever hopes exist for the emergence of genuine democracy in countries like Iraq and Afghanistan and for the effective restoration of democracy in countries like Thailand and Nepal. 3695700354965Extract from ‘THE PAKISTAN INFRASTRUCTURE REPORT BY STATE BANK OF PAKISTAN: (2010)’ 00Extract from ‘THE PAKISTAN INFRASTRUCTURE REPORT BY STATE BANK OF PAKISTAN: (2010)’.

Democracies have a huge advantage over dictatorships in the political processing of adversity. They afford their citizens the ability to register frustration, and even disgust, with the political status quo by throwing the bums out and getting orderly change. By contrast, when authoritarian regimes run out of resources and excuses, they face an existential threat of disorderly change—regime changes — because there is no other way to replace the leaders in power. LITERACY The educated society is great asset for the country to run its organizations effectively.

But 7 / 18 unfortunately, Pakistan is far behind among the educated and literate societies of the world. This factor is damaging the state’s organizations working as skilled and enthusiastic leadership is lacking because of illiterate society. An educated society and man power is one of the important factors for any country to flourish in the public sector. This is because governments have failed to provide better education facilities. We can see the scenario in the chart. DELAYED JUSTICE AND BREAKING AGAINST LAWS Another fact is that, there is no rule of law in Pakistan. It will be very right to say that everything is fair in love, war and Pakistan.

Then there is no timely justice. The cases in the courts are trialed for years after years and no result is given. Recently we have seen in SHAHZAIB MURDER CASE that, a murderer freed to Dubai and there was no record of his departure from the airport. Even when he was caught through inter-pole, still he is not punished by the court. It shows the condition of delayed justice and breaking against the laws in our country. Similarly, people do corruption in public organizations and they are also spotted, but their political influence is so much powerful that they are not made accountable in front of courts and enjoy the royalties of being superior.

TERRORISM Terrorism in Pakistan has become a major and highly destructive phenomenon in recent years. The annual death toll from terrorist attacks has raised from 164 in 2003 to 3318 in 2009, with a total of 35,000 Pakistanis killed as of 2010. According to the government of Pakistan, the direct and indirect economic costs of terrorism from 2000-2010 total $68 billion. This is enough to show that how much is spent in fight against terrorism. This large amount can be used for the development of public sector organizations so they can work efficiently.

EXTRACT FROM ‘THE PAKISTAN INFRASTRUCTURE REPORT BY STATE BANK OF PAKISTAN: (2010)’ FINANCIAL AFFAIRS AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONSInefficient utilization of resources and inappropriate allocations thereof results in trade deficit and funds shortage for Governments which leads them to debt financing. Pakistan is facing the problem of loan disbursements as country is going through severe financial crisis for past one or two decades.

The governments are finding it difficult to pay off its debts to the international financial intermediaries as well as internal financial institutions. We can see the loan disbursement condition of Pakistan in the chart. Condition of our public organizations is not good at the moment. Infect, they are running in losses in spite of the loan that was taken from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and USAID program. The fact behind this is corruption. Our public organizations are victim of corruption and it is very severe aspect of their in-efficient working. The budgets allotted to them are not used for the efficient working and for productive use, rather used for the benefits of individuals and ignoring the interest of the organizations.

The organizations like PIA, RAILWAYS etc. are running with financial and administrative crises. The poor condition of these organizations can be seen in the following tables. Facts about PIA and Pakistan Railways are stated below: 35433001651000 Similar is the condition of other public organizations of Pakistan like STEEL MILLS, WAPDA, and OGDCL etc. These organizations are a sign of corrupt and mismanaged administration. The political influence is so much strong on them that, they have become the serious source of the individual benefits for the politicians and are not considered public interest organizations by the public in general. _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________

REFERENCES: WORLD BANK’S (WB) DATA BANK WEBSITE: (data. worldbank. org) School enrollment; secondary (gross %) – frequency comparative chart. 8 / 18 Market Capitalization of Listed Companies (GDP %) – frequency comparative chart. SLIDESHARE – PAKISTAN RAILWAYS: (www. slideshare. net) Pakistan Railways (Revenue vs. Expenditure) PAKISTAN INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES: (www. piac. com. pk) Pakistan International Airline’s turnover and expenditure comparison chart. (2009,2010).