Political science and philosophy Summary

Scope of political science is to study the past things that happened and use it correct the present and determine what the future will say about. From the various definitions, it is clear that the main point of discussion in the subject is state. The scope can be discussed under the following heads. (1). Study of the form of the State as exits at present… (2). Study of the State in historical perspective… (3). Study of the ideal form of the State… (4). Behavioral concepts. (A) Study of the Modern form of State(Study of the form of the State as exits at present)… (1).

Ends of State… (2). Study of government as a means… (3). Study of different forms of government… (4). Study of relationship between the people and the government. (B) Study of State in Historical Perspective. (1). When and how the State came into existence… (2). State in different Ages… (3). Study of the change in thinking in different ages… (4). Study of the Behavior of Bureaucracy… (5). Study of Behavioral concept… (6). Study of the methods of election and voting behavior…(7). Study of political parties and pressure groups… (8).

Study of the Social Economic and Geographical conditions…(9). Study of Developing Nation… (10). Study of International politics & International Organization. Nature of Political Science There are different views on the nature of politics Aristotle, Bodin, Hobbes, Bluntschli, Montesquieu, few is, Sedgwick, Jellinek, etc, hold that politics is a science. But writers like J. S. Hill, Maitland, Collin, Barker, etc, maintain that is only on art. 1. Politics is a Science Politics is considered as science on the following grounds. (1).

Politics can be studied in a systematic manner. (2). It is said that experimentation is possible in politics. (3). Political Science, like other Sciences, has absolute and universal laws. (4). It is possible to make predictions in politics, but in a limbed are. (5). These are certain principles and methods on which political thinkers unanimously agree. (6). Politics is a subject which has scientific nature. (7). at present, politics has attained modernity. 2. Politics is not a Science (1). Politics has no absolute and universal laws like physical sciences or exact sciences.

(2). It does not observe the theory of cause and effect which is the basis of all Sciences. (3). The subject of politics has not developed in a steady, regular and continuous manner. (4). Scientific methods of observation and experimentation cannot be applied to politics. Political scientists study matters concerning the allocation and transfer of power in decision making, the roles and systems of governance including governments and international organizations, political behavior and public policies.

They measure the success ofgovernance and specific policies by examining many factors, including stability, justice, material wealth, and peace. Some political scientists seek to advance positive (attempt to describe how things are, as opposed to how they should be) theses by analyzing politics. Others advance normative theses, by making specific policy recommendations. Political scientists provide the frameworks from which journalists, special interest groups, politicians, and the electorate analyze issues. According to Chaturvedy, “…

Political scientists may serve as advisers to specific politicians, or even run for office as politicians themselves. Political scientists can be found working in governments, in political parties or as civil servants. They may be involved withnon-governmental organizations (NGOs) or political movements. In a variety of capacities, people educated and trained in political science can add value and expertise to corporations. [citation needed] Private enterprises such as think tanks, research institutes, polling and public relations firms often employ political scientists.

“[citation needed] In the United States, political scientists known as “Americanists[disambiguation needed]” look at a variety of data including constitutional development, elections, public opinion and public policy such as Social Security reform, foreign policy, US Congressional committees, and the US Supreme Court — to name only a few issues. “As a discipline” political science, possibly like the social sciences as a whole, “lives on the fault line between the ‘two cultures’ in the academy, the sciences and the humanities.

” Thus, in some American colleges where there is no separate School or College of Arts and Sciences per se, political science may be a separate department housed as part of a division or school of Humanities or Liberal Arts. Whereas classical political philosophy is primarily defined by a concern for Hellenic and Enlightenment thought, political scientists are also marked by a great concern for “modernity” and the contemporary nation state, along with the study of classical thought, and as such share a greater deal of terminology with sociologists (e.g. structure and agency). Most United States colleges and universities offer B. A. programs in political science.

M. A. or M. A. T. and Ph. D. or Ed. D. programs are common at larger universities. The term political science is more popular in North America than elsewhere; other institutions, especially those outside the United States, see political science as part of a broader discipline of political studies, politics, or government.

Whilepolitical science implies use of the scientific method, political studies implies a broader approach, although the naming of degree courses does not necessarily reflect their content. Separate degree granting programs in international relations and public policy are not uncommon at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Master’s level programs in political science are common when political scientists engage in public administration. [7] The national honor society for college and university students of government and politics in the United States is Pi Sigma Alpha.