People participate in politics to influence policy decision for beter life or beter future by voting, interest groups, labor unions, associations and party membership. There are 3 groups ; Gladiators (Elites) : a small proportion of gladiators who fight the political battle. For instance, the activist campaigners. Spectators: a large group og spectators who observe the contest but rarely participate beyond voting. Apathetics: a substantial number of apathetics who are unengaged in formal politics. Gladiators are well educated,rich, upper class, closer to politics.
Two factors seem to be particularly influential thats are political resources and political interest. People in high-status have education( gives Access to information), Money ( buys the luxury of time), high status and communications skills(success) Social Movements Social movements including demonstrations, sit-ins, boycotts and political strikes. Movements are more loosely organized, informal, to challenge the political establishment, focus on single issue, social and legislative change. Replaced dictators. Ex: arap spring and Occupy wall street WHY Social movements getting stronger ?
Urbanization brings people together, education expands their concerns, the mass media enables information to circulate, civil right allow people to Express their opinions openly, representative institutions give people hope that their voice might be heard and above all, the growth of goverment make politics a more important theme in ordinary lives. Political participation in illiberal Democracy there are elections but when when the governor comes to power they supress and control media, restrick some freedoms and manipulating the electoral system.
Voting: supporting your national leader against enemies of the country and people ( when come to power, put businessmen in prison) Political inequality: the leader rules and the masses follows. Individual needs are often met through the personal intervention of a local political figure or other patron. Corruption:bribery Civil society: the problem in illiberal domocracies is the weekness of a civil society regulated by law but remaining separete from the state. Civil society provides opportunities for people to participate in collective activities that are neither pro-state or anti-state but simply non-state.
In Latin America; we see social problems such as poverty, inequality, drugs, crime and limited education. This leads to less pol. participation. Cynicism : lost of hope in the system,discouraging political part. Politicans tortured because of being against drugs cartel. So, strong goverment is needed. Participation in Political Violence if issues ignored, the outcome can be political violence by citizens trying to change goverment policy or by one social group against other, or by the state against its own people. The events of 11 september, 2001 brought violence and political terror into focus.
Clausewitz says that war is part of politics. Often violence is rational,calculated. Most political violence is tactical. Ex: car bomb in Lebanon against American and French military base. More than 80 soldiers died. Indian presedent was killed by a suicide bomber. We see many of them in Iraq, Palestine. At first it was thought to be irrational fanaticism, but they were actually politically motivated. Suicide missions are adopted as a last resort, drawing on a cultural tradition of martyrdom and an underlying sense of hopelessness, within the community as the indivudial participant.
Even genocide is political participation. Ex: Jews in Europe in 1941, Tutsis in Ruanda in 1994. Revolutions There are two main reasons why the riots. Administration disorder and economic distress. Political order is debated and existing order collapses. After revolution we can talk a reconstruction political, social and economic order. Revolutions consist of three overlapping stages; 1-state breakdown, 2-the struggle for power,3- radical reconstruction of the state. Ex: after 2. world war Istanbul occupied by British and others, there was sultan but without power. Federalism
Federalism is a system in which governmental power is divided between a national government and several subnational government, each of which is legally supreme in its assigned sphere. Madisson believed that the greatest threat to human rights in a popular government is the tyranny of popular majorities. Federalism has been widely praised as one of the greatest American contribution to the art of government. Power specifically assigned to the federal government such as the power to declare war, make treaties with foreign nations, coins money, and regulate commerce between state.
State struggle with education, marriage and divorce, intrastate commerce, and regulation of motor vehicles. But federal government has to help the state in certain cases like building a highway or helping the poor. Separation of Powers Separation of power means the constitutional division of government power among separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The constitution of the U. S specifically vests the legislative power in the Congress, the executive power in the president, and the judicial power in the federal courts, headed by the supreme court.
Federal government decision has to pass in the Congress. President elected for 4 years. Judges of the federal courts and supreme court are appointed by the president and approved by the senate. But after that, president doesn’t have any control over them. Judges appointed for life, can be removed. Political Culture Melting pot. : Many people live in America who comes from many different cultures in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America. America vesting them freedom of religion, equality. Blending all different culture into one uniquely American culture.
it doesn’t mean that they forget their own culture like Mexican food, asian music. But common to all is speaking English. However, African- Americans were not equal in 1960s. blacks sit behind on bus or not allow to enter a restaurant. Prevailing national culture is not a blend of all cultures, but the culture of western europen. Patchwork Quilt. : there are different parts of USA’s society, living together. But not necessarily in harmony. Like different pieces together some small some big.
It seems that this is beter explanation for American culture. Political socialization Political socialization is the process by which children are introduced to the valves and attitudes of their society,shaping their nations of what the political world is like and which people, policies and institutions are good and bad. Political socialization beings in children as young as 3 or 4 years and it goes until death. They learn about political parties legislators, judges and public policies and issues. Their perceptions broaden when they grow older.
The main agencies shaping Americans political socialization are their families, schoolteachers, friends, schoolmate and the mass communications media. It is known that, parents continue to have the most powerful impact on most people”s political socialization. But as the influence of the mass communication media has increased in recent years parents impact has lessened. The media, especially television, have become on of the most important forces and many would say the most important force affecting people”s political socialization, attitudes and behavior.