Political Ideologies

Socialism and Communism are largely the same (the former is a political & economic system while the latter just an economic system), it can also be said tht Communism is a branch of socialism…anyway both advocate the collective ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods…in socialism many people in government administration have control over the economy while in communism its usually a single-party having authoritarian rule…(yeah it gives TOO MUCH POWER to a small group of people).

In both these doctrines, everyone is promised a fair share (atleast theoretically) of goods & services…in communism people get according to their needs (leaving no difference b/w rich and poor, educated & uneducated) while in socialism its according to their deeds/efforts….however production needs to be increased drastically in order to meet everyone’s requirements which to date has not been possible.

Both these are in contrast to CAPITALISM which can be simplified to “survival of the fittest”…here the rich get richer while the poor remain poor (infact that’s where the system leads to eventually, small group of people own most of the money, resources)…it advocates “free market” (that is no regulations, free trade, no duty customs etc, in it prices are determined by demand and supply)…due to which giant corporations and BANKS can monopolize the economy and take exclusive control of nations wealth…(thats whats happening today in US and Eurozone)…

As the policies are determined by private individuals, it is more government-free (NOT 100%)… eventually giant corporations get powerful enough to have a say on how the country is run say through lobbying etc. The pros are it can lead to rapid indutrialization, booming economic growth – as the workforce can be exploited by the employer with no checks in place… Liberalism, as the name suggests tends to remove all restrictions, making everyone free to do anything until & unless it does not harm others – for which the goverment is responsible to provide protection.

It advocates civil & political liberty, free-market just like capitalism plus Gold Standard (in which money/currency is pegged to or backed by actual gold reserves so money cant be created simply by printing more & more RECEIPTS) as is the case today…. however it also recognizes the need for some chks on government (by limiting its powers) so it cant itself be a threat to liberty. In simple terms it means freedom of the governed ! (P. S. US dropped the gold standard in 1971, rest of the world kinda followed) Constitutionalism… taken literally…

It means a set of rules under which the state is run and how the goverment exercises its powers… under this pretext- all modern states are constitutional as they consist of a constitution to which every citizen is bound… However… as an ideology… it is essentially about limiting the powers of government severely (comparable to Liberalism)… through some sort of rules & regulations and in order to make sure the government sticks to them, those rules must be “self-limiting” as in the government’s rule remains legit as long as it observes and enforces those limitations…

(which can be anything like a law stating goverment doesnt have a right to say anything over religion)… i know this ones confusing :p Over here the supreme power belongs to the people INFACT it is quite similar to democracy… Conservatism – It encourages/supports the need to resist change, or keep it minimal/gradual as much as possible… “change is supposedly inevitable thats why”…. while some extreme versions would require the need to go back to the way things used to be O_o … thu its widely considered by many as too out-dated/old fashioned for this current so-called globalising world….

Simply speaking, it opposes moderism that is this RAPIDLY changing society… ensures stability thru gradual change… and promotes traditional institutions (like in terms of Islam it can be the replacement of schools with madressahs)… yeah Caliphate can be taken as a branch of conservatism too… it relies extensively on that a society comprises of inter-connected dependant members rather than self supporting individuals… Nationalism (it is deeply linked with patriotism) In its most general sense it is the belief that one(my) nation is superior to all others.. its bad in that it promotes national rather than international interests…

Its essentially about the loyalty & devotion of people to some political/religious ideology mostly backed by a deep-rooted cultural and religious history… it creates a sense of identity among individuals therefore leading them to give unconditional sacrifices for the nation… its almost always among a group of people with common origin, religion, culture etc dating back hundreds or even thousands of years… states are different from nations in that in it people are not linked culturally (integrated) and their way of living maybe very diverse, states are more political and less ideological….