When a crime is committed, a police officer conducts the investigation into the alleged crime. Together with the other officers these law enforces gather enough evidence in order to understand the crime and be in the position to charge a lawbreaker. In a crime scene, there are two kinds of trace evidences that crime scene technicians can collect during the beginning of a certain investigation. These trace evidences are used by forensic scientists to reconstruct crime scenes and to help them describe the places, things, and people involved in such crime.
Trace evidences are essential in solving crimes, freeing the innocent, and bringing the guilty to justice (Saferstein, 2006). The two types of trace evidence that can be found in a crime scene are inorganic and organic trace evidence. Organic trace evidences are those that come from animals or humans such as blood or other fluids. It can also be those that are caused by humans or animals like wounds or bite marks. Fluids-type of evidence is amongst the most useful organic trace evidence since there are a lot of details in their composition. These fluids include sweat, saliva, semen, vomit, and blood (Gardner, 2004).
These fluids when processed in the medical examiner’s laboratory could greatly help in the investigation of a crime. As these fluids have DNA, they can help in identifying the persons involved in the crime. This is one of the strengths of organic trace evidence as it has DNA that can significantly aid in the investigation. Same goes with wounds and bite marks, as these types of evidences can yield out important information about the perpetrator. A weakness of these types of evidence though is that it can be quite difficult to process these fluids once they all get mixed up.
If several people are involved in the crime, different fluids from different people can be present and it will be hard to determine the perpetrator of the crime. On the other hand, the other type of evidence is known as the inorganic trace evidence. These include evidences such as fibers, glass, hairs, ballistics, pain, and tool marks. These evidences are as useful as the organic trace evidences. However, these do not yield direct significant information such as DNA of the people involved. These evidences simply help in reconstructing crime scenes and figuring out what happened.
Ballistics is one of the most known types of inorganic evidence. It greatly contributes to the investigation as the analysis of firearms used in a crime can determine the type of bullet, firearm, and to whom it belongs. A weakness of this type of evidence however, is that some of these evidences happen to be tampered during the investigation as not all evidences are easily visible and can be collected thoroughly. All evidences go though systematic process from the crime scene all the way through prosecution. For instance, a blood sample collected at the crime scene by investigator will be sent out to their laboratory.
The investigators will continuously do their investigation and figure out if the blood found belongs to the perpetrator. This blood sample will be tested. The DNA that will be gathered from the sample will then be run through the legal system in order to check if that person had previous criminal doings. If proven that the blood belongs to the perpetrator the search for the offender will be started and as soon as that person is in custody, prosecution will begin. During the persecution, the evidence will be showed and careful as well as comprehensive trial will take place.
After a deep examination of the evidence provided, the verdict will be given by the judge based from all the evidences provide (Fish, 2007). Trace evidences really contribute significantly to any crime. Both types are helpful and have their own strengths as well as weaknesses. Reference Fish, Jacqueline. (2007). Crime Scene Investigation. Lexis Nexis Anderson Publishing. Gardner, Ross. (2004). Practical Crime Scene Processing and Investigation (Practical Aspects of Criminal & Forensic Investigations). CRC Press. Saferstein, Richard. (2006). Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science. Prentice Hall.