The term police have been used since time immemorial. The police force is invested with legal powers to enforce laws . The police force is allowed to exercise power within given territories and responsibilities. The police force is distinctly separate from the military forces whose main responsibilities my stretch beyond a given territory ; it is also an organization that is defined differently from all other organizations that provide security services. Nonetheless, law enforcement is just but one of the many tasks performed by the police force.
They are mostly called to actions under different circumstances that may entail preservation of order, maintaining peace and protection of private properties amongst others. In the Western nations, the modern model of a police was established by Legal scholars who came from France and practiced legal activities between 17th century and 18th century. The police force was then charged with both social and economic duties. They were paid by the government and had identifications such as special police uniform.
The police was also charged with demographic responsibilities which were considered by mercantilist theory as the major strength of a given state. The establishment and the subsequent development of the modern policed took time and have passed through several revolutionary stages. This paper examines the new police model introduced in 1829 and then reveals how it remains appropriate in the contemporary society . Introduction and form of the police model of 1829 The historical account of the police model has been differently advanced by varied schools of thought.
It is argued that these varied schools of thought within a framework of conservative assumptions. Historically, the police institution has seen and considered as an institution that gives pride to the nation and as an institution that cannot be dispensed with. It was seen, in the British history, as a developmental idea; however, t its initial stages of formation, and the idea of police faced several challenges as not so many people liked the idea of having the institution.
Around 1970s, a new ideology of revisionist account of the model evidently became fundamentally central to peoples concern . During this period, the police force was considered as a means by those I power to maintain their dominance and perpetuate their old of power; this went against some parts of the working class individuals. In fact, the percentage of those who went against the idea of police formed the majority of the British population.
It is important to note that the revisionist ideology is still one of the subjects being deliberated on . One of the major schools of thought on the concept of police is the orthodox story. Orthodox point of view has varied accounts of the concept of “new” police. According to this school of thought the fundamental causative factors that led to the necessity of having a police reform were the rapid urbanization and the industrial revolution.
The advancement of urbanization and industrial revolution were accompanied with some social challenges that were to be addresses through police reforms. The castigatory measures of the 18th century criminal code were seen to be very severe and lacked effectiveness and productivity. The reformed was carried out in which the main proponents of the “old” policing model were placed under satire by those who advocated for police reforms. The criticism advanced by the advocates of police reforms are retailed by the orthodox school of thought.
The nature of the ‘old” police model is said to have constituted police officers who had lost sense of focus in the line of their duty, the judges and advocates misused the system and people lost faith in the model and hence the need for the “new” model. Nonetheless, the introduction of the “new” police model faced objections despite the social disorder that came about as a bi-product of industrialization process. All in all, the orthodox history posits that the “new” police model was efficient and had integrity and that the model managed to restore peace and security in the society.
In other words, the “new” police model has revolutionize the justice system and ensured that as the industrialization continued and urban centers continued expand, the society remains relatively safe from the upsurge of criminals and criminal activities. There is also the new revisionist history pertaining to the revolution of “new” police model. This view of history is in agreement with that of the orthodox ; it also argues that due to the side effects of the industrial revolution process, which brought about social disorder; according to this school of thought, the industrial revolution led to rapid growth of cities.
Due to this, there arose different social classes in which the poor social class was seen to generate more criminals. There was a need for a new police force that would ensure a revolution in the social system. Moreover, the new revisionist part of the argument believes that the industrial revolution gave rise to capitalism. Capitalistic market was more prone to social disorder than the previous one and that required a police model that was equal to the task of containing the dreaded social malfunctions.
According to the revisionists, the “new” police model was characterized by bureaucracy; this was not in the “old” police model and therefore the “new” model is lauded as appropriate for meeting the new policing challenges. According to the revisionists, the “new” police model has served to centralize power and allowed those in power or the government to penetrate deeper into the society and have been able to exercise latent violent supervision over the people by use of bureaucracy.
For this reason, the “new” police model is considered to have paved way for a social order that was more centralized than the one in existence before the model was put in place. However, both the orthodox and revisionist point of view differs on who really benefited from the “new” police model. The orthodox arguments support the universal benefits to all with specific advantages to the weak and the poor. On the contrary, the revisionists posit that capitalists were the main beneficiaries of the new arrangements.
But the fact is that with the high growth rate of urban centers and the whole process of industrial revolution brought about adverse social disorder that threatened the harmonious structure of the society. The “old” police model could not mountain the new emerging social challenges. These new social challenges could only be met by police reforms; the reforms culminated into “new” police model which subsequently changed the society in terms of governance and criminal justice.