Physics Summary Sheet

Electric circuit – one simple, complete conducting circuit pathway Electronic gadget – a machine that consists of multiple circuits and transducers Transducer – device that converts energy from one form to another Input transducer – converts other forms of energy (sound, light, heat) into electrical energy, e. g. microphone Output transducer – converts electrical energy into other forms of energy, e. g. speakers Processor Component – found in electronic gadgets, receives signals from input transducer and responds by operating the output transducer Transistor – device found in processors that can amplify electrical signals or act as a switch Diodes – also found in processors, allows the electric current to flow in only one direction Semi-conductor – a material whose ability to conduct electricity is somewhere between a conductor and insulator LED – a light emitting diode, which is a transistor which transforms electric current into thermal and light energy.

Found in traffic lights, car lamps and indicator lights, and are sturdy, operate for a longer time and use less energy than standard lights.

Integrated circuit – a usually complex circuit with many components, and is packaged into a small unit called a chip Magnetic field – is created when an electric charge moves; it is a region where a permanent experiences a magnetic force of attraction or repulsion Electromagnet – is created when a coil of wire is wrapped around a soft piece of iron when an electric current flows through the wire the magnetic field it creates causes the domains in the iron to line up, creating a strong magnet Domains – the magnetic regions the iron atoms arrange themselves into that act like tiny magnets with north and south poles Electricity – The collection of physical effects related to the force and motion of electrically charged particles, typically electrons, through or across matter and space Electromagnetic Gadget.

A machine that consists of a coil wire wrapped around a soft piece of iron when electric current flows through the wire the magnetic field it creates causes the domains in the iron to line up, creating a strong magnet Light – Electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived by the human eye, it is made up of electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic Spectrum – A range of electromagnetic energy which includes light that we can see and light that we cannot see. An example of light we cannot see is radio waves Transparent – Having the property of transmitting rays of light through its substance Translucent – Permitting light to pass through but diffusing it so that persons, objects, etc. , on the opposite side are not clearly visible Opaque – Does not allow light to pass through Reflection – The change in direction of a wave, such as a light or soundwave, away from a boundary the wave encounters Refraction – When light travels from one medium to another, it speeds up or slows down Our eyes:

-contain two different photoreceptors; rods which detect light and cones which detect colour -our eye detects primary colours with only one type of cone -secondary colours created by multiple cones ‘firing’ simultaneously. Our eyes: -contain two different photoreceptors; rods which detect light and cones which detect colour -our eye detects primary colours with only one type of cone -secondary colours created by multiple cones ‘firing’ simultaneously. Our eyes: -contain two different photoreceptors; rods which detect light and cones which detect colour -our eye detects primary colours with only one type of cone -secondary colours created by multiple cones ‘firing’ simultaneously. Our eyes:

-contain two different photoreceptors; rods which detect light and cones which detect colour -our eye detects primary colours with only one type of cone -secondary colours created by multiple cones ‘firing’ simultaneously. LIGHT Our eyes: -contain two different photoreceptors; rods which detect light and cones which detect colour -our eye detects primary colours with only one type of cone -secondary colours created by multiple cones ‘firing’ simultaneously Human Eye * We see images in our retinas because the fovea in the central of the retina controls the eyes sharpest vision and is the location of most colour perception, which is how we see.