Bruce W. Tuckman is an educational psychologist from Princeton University. In 1960’s, he proposed Tuckman’s Stages of Team Development. It is widely known as a basis for effective team building. It is describes four stages of useful development: forming, storming, norming and performing. In the 1970’s, Tuckman and other authors have added adjourning as the fifth stage. Tuckman's model explains that as the team's growth, ability and building the relationship. However, this is the most frequently cited if compared to the other models of group development that have been proposed.
Every team has to go through these stages so that their work can do smoothly, completely and perfectly. (Alan Chapman, 2009) Stage 1: Forming In this first stage, the main concern is the initial formation of a group. It was occurs when the individual first meet each other. It involves individual is introduced themselves to all the team member and exchange contact number or email address. Individual try hard to be established by each other and prevent argument. They are busying with the schedule, such as the organizational structure of the team, who is responsible for what, when to meet and the location of meeting.
Besides that, team member are also know well about their duty and the other team member in the assessment. On the other hand, the team leader tends to need to be directive and very clear about the team goal. Team leader is ensuring that all of the members are involved in ensure the team member’s responsibilities and duty. The forming stage is important because individuals can get to know one another, exchange some personal information, and make new friends. They are likely to be affect by the expectations and this stage is transferring individual to become a team. This is also a good opportunity to see how respond to pressure.
(Laurie J. Mullins, 2010) I get stuck at this stage because mutual trust is low and I am not clear on what I supposed to do. So I have relied on leader (Sia Chang Cheng) for instruction and orientation. He suggested all group members gathered in study area at Segi University for the second meeting. At the end of this stage, I’m clear about the assessment overall duty, the goal of the mission, a rough project schedule, the resources at my disposal and each member's project responsibilities. In addition, I know the leader must be directive and find a way to build trust between group members.
Stage 2: Storming In this stage, intension, emotionality and uncomfortable is high among the group member. A decision was not come easily within the group. Team members are contending for acceptance of their own ideas. They frequently have distinct ideas, opinion, and suggestion when doing the assessment. So, they begin to challenge each other in an effort to start addressing issues. Individual began to see themselves as part of the team, feel more confidence in their position within the group and open up to each other and face each other's ideas.
During this stage, team leader can be more easily and can be good at promote the team. Team leader also need to train some team members in order they can to be more dogmatic. Team members also can learn how to be more valid listeners. Therefore, individual will resolve their differences so they will be able to participate with one another more comfortably. This stage is necessary to the growth of the team because team member will find out the conflict between each other, listening to each other, and moving forwards.
May be the other team may dismiss because they support their own ideas and without tolerance and patience. (James G. Hunt, 2005) There have minor arguments between Sim Mun-Yee and me, but we pass it rather quickly because the team leader's guide us to move on. As a team, we learned a way that can solve the problems together as a team and the integration into responsibilities and duty on the team. Furthermore, Xiaou Min and Chen Yee remain completely silent because of the indisposed during the quarrel happened. At the end of the storming stage, our team how to work together for the assessment.
Otherwise, we also become closer with each other. I know about the leader was create positive environment, actively support and reinforce team behavior. Moreover to this, I agree on individuals’ roles and responsibilities. Stage 3: Norming During stage 3, team relations are featuring by cohesion between team members. Individual in active confirmation of all members' dedication, maintain team mission, and solve team issues. Now past the arguments, they are more understand each other, and have an appreciation for each other’s skills. They are now fully support each other.
Besides, individual may be able to give up about their own ideas and agree about the others for the purpose of the team can move on. Commitment and unity is strong. They become more co-operative and start to agree on individual responsibilities. Some decisions are made by the team agreement. Whereas, small decisions can be consign to the team member. Leadership is shared, facilitates, and factions dissolution. Thus, this stage is important because individual share feelings and opinion, give feedback to each other, and search the information related to the task.
They are happy to being a part of the team. (David A. Buchanan, 2010) Appreciation and trust is building among each other. Sin Jee gave up her idea and agree about Chen Yee when we discuss the decision so that the discussion can move on smoothly. We are fully agreed about the decision making. At the end of the norming stage, I know about the appreciation and trust is accepted among team members. We learned about the self-reinforcing. Our hidden schedule becomes open and the team is creative. Stage 4: Performing The fourth stage can be described as a state of flexibility and interdependence.
Individual are not only enjoying their team member who work on one own. They also support their team member who can work interdependently to solve problems. They found a ways to get the job done smoothly and effectively. They have defined clear roles, work processes, and respect of the team. Other than this, individual are high on trust and loyalty towards the team members and focused on the task. They are highly people-oriented and highly task-oriented. The structure is stable, team members are motivated by the goal. During this stage, team leader are always participative.
Individual do not to be guidance and aid. But they can ask the leader to help them with the interpersonal development. Leader is delegates and oversees team and also available to offer continued support. This stage is important because team member communicate all the time and share rewards, successes, and responsibility. (Mattin John, 2005) The entire team members are motivated. We successfully completed the assessment. At the end of the performing stage, I know about when I should help the others and when I should work independently. Team member are motivated and individuals defer to team needs.
Moreover, individuals take pleasure in the success of the team and we have high mutual trust in everyone. Stage 5: Adjourning In this final stage, a good comprehensive group may dissolution after the task is completed successfully. Individual are moving on to the other tasks and they are anxieties about the separation. Individuals will be proud of their achievement and glad to have belonged together as a group. They will self-evaluation during this stage. This phase is sure relevant to the group member and their well-being. Therefore, ready for themselves to go their own way. (John W. Slocum, Jr. , 2007)
Limitation The limitation of the Tuckman’s model is once the team is completed all the stages, the team member’s duty is fixed. I think the team member need to change their duty for a period of time. So, they can receive the new challenge. This can maintain the team performance advantages. On the other hand, the limitation is the team need to start form the first stage if got any changes about the team members. It is wasting their time. Conclusion These 5 stages of Tuckman’s Stage of Team Development are essential to success with the group goals. Forming is the initial formation of the group.
Storming is necessary to resolve the conflict. Define group's goals at the norming stage. Performing is the actual goal of the conference group. Adjourning is a process that assesses the results. On the other hand, Tuckman’s Stage of Team Development does not need to occur in the sequence. Some group will make a return journey between all the stages. May be the group will pass through the same stage for few times and not all groups pass through all the stages. Some group will pause in the particular stage for a period of time. Every group has the different period of passing the stages.
Some of them take the longer time compare to the others. References 1. David A. Buchanan, Andrzej A. Huczynski, 1985, 2010, Organizational Behavior, 7th Edition, Pearson Education Limited, England (Pg 317-320) 2. John R. Schermerhorn, Jr. , James G. Hunt, Richard N. Osborn, 2005, Organizational Behavior, 9th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , United States of America (Pg 198-200) 3. Mattin John, 2005, Organizational Behavior & Management, Thomson Learning, London (Pg 233) 4. Laurie J. Mullins, 2010, Management & Organizational Behavior, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited, England (Pg 317-319) 5.
John W. Slocum, Jr. , Don Hellriegel, 2007, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Thomson South-Western, USA (Pg 221-224) 6. Lorenzo Orlando Caum (15th March 2011), Four Stages of Group Development by Bruce W. Tuckman, [Online] Available from http://lorenzocaum. com/blog/the-four-stages-of-group-development-by-bruce-w-tuckman/ [Accessed on 12th March 2013] 7. Stages of Team Development, [Online] Available from http://www. cliffsnotes. com/study_guide/Stages-of-Team-Development. topicArticleId-8944,articleId-8904. html [Accessed on 12th March 2013] 8.
Tuckman’s Model of Team Development, [Online] Available from http://www. trainanddevelop. co. uk/article/tuckman-model-of-team-development-a160 [Accessed on 12th March 2013] 9. Alan Chapman (2009), Tuckman Forming Storming Norming Performing model, [Online] Available from http://www. businessballs. com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming. htm [Accessed on 12th March 2013] 10. Gina Abudi (15th July 2009), The Five Stages of Team Develoment, [Online] Available from http://www. ginaabudi. com/the-five-stages-of-team-development-part-i/ [Accessed on 12th March 2013]