What are the bases for law enforcement officer perceptions of particular individuals (and groups) based on ethnicity, race, and other factors (such as sexual orientation and age)? What methodological flaw calls into question the argument that members of certain ethnic groups or races are responsible for more crime than members of other ethnic groups or races? How are “under protection” and “over enforcement” defined and why are these noteworthy issues? There are various perceptions by law enforcement officers on particular individual or even groups based in ethnicity, race and other factors for example sexual orientation and age.
Such perception by these officers based on ethnicity may be that a particular community or rather people from a particular race are largely criminals for example or the age of 20 years that is the young are relatively violent in crowned areas. There arguments are reached to rather come up from individual officer’s perception. If an officer comes from the same say ethnicity, they may tend to favor them compared to those of a different ethnic group. Also, they may make conclusion from the records concerning the criminal cases.
Those communities that have more criminals are seen to be to have higher affinity for crime and every suspect from that community is rounded up; he/she is treated with more seriousness than other or people from other communities. This is unfair and questionable as not all the people are the same. (Walker, 2004)) Underprotection may be defined as a case where the law will tend to protect only the highly ranked people in the society and leave out those people that are lowly ranked in the community.
It is a case where law enforcers will tend to concentrate on the top officials and leave the ordinary citizens. Overenforcement may in most cases occur when all the total sanction experienced by the one who goes against the law or the violator of a legal rude is more than the amount optimal for deterrence. Both underprotection and overenforcement should not be looked down upon as they will result into conflict in the state where they appear. Use of Force – Stereotypes etc Why is use of force such an important part of a chapter concerning Police-Community Relations?
What do the terms “Driving while Black,” “Driving while Brown,” and “Driving while Female” refer to? In addition to being stopped due to race (in a car or on foot), what other concerns are presented in the text that relate to field tactics and stereotyping? Use of force is such as important part concerning police-community relationship because this is the area where there appear to be discrimination viewed in the relationship between the police and the community. This means that if there is the use of too much force by the police to the community, they may be seen as discrimination.
Affected citizens may feel exploited and discriminated but they may not have any say or they may not be able to react. Thus the use of force should be looked critically to avoid misconceptions. Driving while black is a term mostly used in the US. It is mostly used to refer to a case where a police would pull you out of your car, search you and charge you with a serious offence not because you have committed it but because of your skin color. It was linked to racism where people were discriminated due to their race.
One would be charged for driving while intoxicated. Just like Driving While Black, Driving While Brown can be termed as a term used to discriminate people due to their skin color. In this case it was the Latin American people who were discriminated because they have a different color than the officers. This would most affect people who drive from one state to the next. Driving while female is a case where one is discriminated depending on their gender. Women are discriminated when they are driving simply because they are women.
Also cited in the book is the case where one is discriminated because of your nationality. If you do not come from the same state as the patrolling officer or the police who has stopped you, chances are that you will be searched. Also there was discrimination based on the gender of the individual. If one is a female, she experiences more scrutiny with the officers than the male counterpart. Also, they are discriminated judging from the license plate of the car. If the plate is not pleasing, one is subjected to more searches and more scrutiny. (Walker, 2004))