The intent of this paper is to discuss the stakeholder’s concerns relative to the significance of perceived performance criteria and the related performance outcomes in a construction sector environment located in Hong Kong. The key participants to this study consisted of clients, designers, consultants and contractors.
Using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the research established nine performance criteria namely profitability, care for environmental protection, timeliness of project delivery, quality of life, safety, effectiveness of the construction process, no claims or disputes, job satisfaction, and innovative ideas for design and method. Outliers between the performance criteria and the outcome would represent weaknesses needing performance improvement.
The hypotheses developed emphasized that there are variables that govern the research population when analyzing the importance of performance criteria in relation to planned performance outcomes, different types of construction projects may demand different performance levels, and the roles of participants in the construction projects may have varied opinions on what criteria would be most important. Data from 324 practitioners engaged in construction projects in Hong Kong were compiled and analyzed.
The respondents were grouped by their roles in the construction project, by the type of construction projects, and by their functional role in their respective organization. Based on the results of the data analysis, the research rated timeliness of delivery or completion of the project as the most important performance criterion out of the nine areas followed by profitability, care for environmental protection, quality of life, safety, effectiveness of the construction process, no claims or disputes, job satisfaction, and last was innovative ideas for design and method. Similar research work was conducted by R. F. Fox, R. R.
A Issa, and D Ahrens (2003) as published in the Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. The results of their research support the hypothesis that perceived Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) varied according to management’s order of importance. Further analysis indicated that there was a substantial difference in KPIs between construction executive and project management depending on their role in a construction project.
In conclusion, it is evident that the results of Lai and Lam’s research support the hypotheses that there is the presence of variables in the importance of performance criteria pegged against outcomes depending on the functional level of stakeholders, the various types of construction projects, and the different contributions of the participants in the completion of the projects. References Cox, R. F. , Issa, R. R. A. , & Ahrens, D. (2003).
Management’s Perception of Key performance Indicators for Construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. Volume 129, Issue 2, April 2003. Kozub, R. M. (2010). An ANOVA of the relationships between business students’ learning styles and effectiveness of the web based instruction. American Journal of Business Education.
March 2010, Vol 3 Issue 3, p89-98. Dr. Robert Kozub, a professor at the University of Wisconsin conducted a study on the relationships between the learning styles of students and the degree of influence of a web based instruction. The study sampled 159 undergraduates from taxes and personal finance courses. For learning to be initiated, Dr. Kozub’s theory predicts that two processes need to occur, prehending and transformation. Prehending is the process a learner receives and digests information either through personal experience or through the use abstract methods.
Transformation is interpreting and converting the data received into cognitive information adapting to what is most beneficial to the student. Dr. Kozub highlighted four learning styles as identified in Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory (LSI-IIa) namely Accommodator, Diverger, Converger, and Assimilator (Kolb, 1984). These styles are characteristic of a student’s performance in both text and web based learning environment and were utilized in the study to investigate their possible impact on a student’s learning performance.
Students have varied cognitive learning styles and reacted differently in various learning conditions. In evaluating Kolb’s four LSI-IIa learning styles, some students adapted to abstract conceptualization, others showed preference on lecture class activities, and the rest flourished in actual demonstrations. The result also indicated little perceived academic advancement although there were signs of students’ heightened learning initiatives.
The study however, affirmed that optimal student learning is achieved when the instructional design complements the student’s learning strengths. Courtad, C. A (2012) ‘s scholarly article on web-based education indicates that although a web-based instruction has the potential to enhance a student’s learning, this may not sufficiently prepare a student to embrace a diverse 21st century classroom as it appears that there are other components of learning that need to intervene, such as social and physical interaction among students.
Kolb’s scholarly article on experiential learning says that “learning is a process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience” (Kolb, D. A. 1984, p38). References Kolb, D. A. (1984). The Process of Experiential Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Courtad, Carrie Anna (2012). Educators: Are Web-based Resources an Effective Means for Increasing Knowledge in Higher Education? Assistive Technology Outcomes and Benefits Journal. Focus Issue, Fall 2012. Volume 8, Number 1.