The People’s Bank of China

The People’s Bank of China is the is the central bank of People’s Republic of China with the power to control monetary policy and regulate the financial institutions in mainland China. The People’s Bank of China has more financial assets than any other single public finance institution in world history. History: The bank was established on December 1, 1948 based on consolidation of Huabei Bank, the Beihai Bank and the Xibei Farmer Bank. The headquarter was first located in Shijiazhuang, Hebei and then moved to Beijing in 1949.

Between 1949 and 1978 the PBC was the only bank in People’s Republic of China and was responsible for both central banking and commercial banking operations. In the 1980, as part of economic reform, the commercial banking functions of the PBC were split off into four independent but state owned banks and in 1983, the State Council promulgated that the PBC would function as the central bank of China. Its central bank status was legally confirmed on March 18, 1995 by the 3rd Plenum of the 8th National People’s Congress. In 1998, the PBC underwent a major restructuring.

All provincial and local branches were abolished, and the PBC opened nine regional branches, whose boundaries did not correspond to local administrative boundaries. In 2003, the standing committee of the 10th National People’s Congress approved an amendment law for strengthening the role of PBC in the making and implementation of monetary policy for safeguarding the overall financial stability and provision of financial services. Management: The top management of PBC is composed of the governor and a certain number of deputy governors.

The governor of the PBC is appointed into or removed from office of the President of People’s Republic of China. The candidate for the governor of PBC is nominated by the Premier of the State Council and approved by the People’s National Congress. The deputy governors of the PBC are appointed into or removed from office by the Premier of the State Council. The PBC adopts a governor responsibility system under which the governor supervises the overall work of the PBC while the deputy governors provide assistance to the governor to fulfill his or her responsibility.

The current governor is Zhou Xiaochuan. Other high ranking deputies include Wang Hongzhang, Hu Xiaolian, Liu Shiyu, Ma Delun, Yi Gang, Du Jinfu, Li Dongrong, Guo Qingping. Structure: The PBC has established 9 regional branches respectively in Tianjin, Shenyang, Shanghai, Nanjing, Jinan, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Xi’an, 2 operations offices in Beijing and Chongqing, 303 municipal sub branches and 1809 county level sub branches.

It has 6 overseas representative offices PBC Representative Office for America, PBC Representative Office (London) for Europe, PBC Tokyo Representative Office, PBC Frankfurt Representative Office, PBC Representative Office for Africa, Liaison Office of the PBC in the Caribbean Development Bank. The PBC consists of 18 functional departments (bureaus), * General Administration Department * Legal Affairs Department * Monetary Policy Department * Financial Market Department * Financial Stability Bureau * Financial Survey and Statistics Department

* Accounting and Treasury Department * Payment System Department * Technology Department * Currency, Gold and Silver Bureau * State Treasury Bureau * International Department * Internal Auditing Department * Personnel Department * Research Bureau * Credit Information System Bureau * Anti-Money Laundering Bureau (Security Bureau) * Education Department of the COC PBC Committee The following enterprises and institutions are directly under the PBC; * China Anti-money Laundering Monitoring and Analysis Center * PBC Graduate School * China Financial Publishing House

* Financial News * China National Clearing Center * China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation * China Gold Coin Incorporation * China Financial Computerization Corporation * China Foreign Exchange Trade System Microfinance: * Rural Credit Cooperatives List of Governors: * Nan Hanchen: October 1949—October 1954 * Cao Juru: Oct. 1954—Oct. 1964 * Hu Lijiao: Oct. 1964—Oct. 1966 * Chen Xiyu: May 1973—Jan. 1978 * Li Baohua: Jan. 1978—April 1982 * Lu Peijian: April 1982—March 1985 * Chen Muhua: March 1985—April 1988 * Li Guixian: April 1988—July 1993

* Zhu Rongji: July 1993—June 1995 * Dai Xianglong: June 1995—Dec. 2002 * Zhou Xiaochuan: Dec. 2002—Present. Interest Rates: Interest rates set by the bank are always divisible by nine, instead of by 25 as in the rest of the world. At 22 Dec. 2008 it was set to 5. 31%. (1. 2) Evolution of Banks in China The history of Chinese banking system has been somewhat checkered. Nationalization of the country’s banks got the highest priority in the earliest year of People’s Republic of China, and the banking was the first sector to be completely socialized.

In the period of Chinese war (1949-52), the People’s Bank of China moved very effectively to raging inflation and brings the nation’s finances under central control. Over the course of time, the banking organization was modified repeatedly to suit changing conditions and new policies. The people’s Bank of China was the central bank and the foundation of the banking system. Although the bank overlapped in function with the Ministry of Finance and lost many of its responsibilities during Cultural Revolution, in the 1970 it was restored to its leading position.

As the central bank the People’s Bank of China had sole responsibility for issuing and controlling the money supply. It also served as the government treasury, the main source of credit economic units, the clearing center of financial transactions, the holder of enterprise deposits, the national saving banks, and a ubiquitous monitor of economic activities. The People’s Construction Bank managed by state and provides loans for capital construction. It checked the activities of loans receipts to insure that the funds were used for their designated construction purpose. Money was spending in stages as a project progressed.

The reform policy shifted the main source of investment funding from the government budget to bank loans and increased the responsibility and increased the responsibility and activities of the People’s Construction Bank. Another financial institution, the Bank of China, handle all dealings in foreign exchange. It was responsible for allocating the country’s foreign exchange reserves, arranging foreign loans, setting exchange rates for China’s currency, issuance of letters of credit, and generally carrying out all financial transactions with foreign firms and individuals.

The Bank of China had offices in Beijing and other cities and maintained overseas offices in major international financial centers, including Hong Kong, London, New York, Singapore and Luxembourg. Banking system was centralized early or under the Ministry of Finance, which exercised firm control over all financial services, credit, and the money supply. During 1980 the banking system was expended to meet the needs of the program, and the scale of banking activity rose sharply. New budgetary producers required state enterprises to resubmit to the state only a tax on income and to seek investment funds in the form of bank loans.

Between 1979 and 1985, the deposits nearly tripled and the value of bank loans rose by 260 percent. By 1987 the banking system included the People’s Bank of China, Agricultural Bank, Bank of China (which handled foreign exchange things), China Investment Bank, China Industrial and Commercial Bank, People’s Construction Bank, Communications Bank, People’s Insurance Company of China, Rural Credit Cooperatives and Urban Credit Cooperatives. The Agricultural Bank was created in the 1950 to facilitate financial operations in the rural areas. The Agricultural Bank provide financial support to the agricultural units.

It issued loans, directed the operations in the rural credit cooperatives, and carried out overall supervision of rural financial affairs. The Agricultural Bank was headquartered in Beijing and had a network of branches throughout the country. It starts increasing in the late 1950 and mid 1960 but ended in the late 1970. When the functions of the Agricultural Bank were increased it helps promote higher agricultural production. In the 1980 it was restructured again and given greater authority in order to support the growth of agriculture under the responsible system.

Rural Credit Cooperatives were small, but collectively owned savings and lending organizations that were the main source of small scale financial services at the local level in the countryside. They handled deposits and short terms loans for individual farm families, villages and cooperative organizations. Subject to the direction of the Agricultural Bank, they followed uniform state banking policies and acted as independent units for accounting purposes. In 1985 rural credit cooperatives held total deposit ? 72. 5 Billion. (1. 3)

Different Categories of Banks

Bank of China Agricultural Bank of China (one of the main banks in mainland China) CITIC Industrial Bank (China International Trust and Investment Bank) China Construction Bank (one of the main banks in mainland China) China Merchants Bank (one of the main banks in mainland China) Industrial and Commercial Banks in China (one of the largest state owned in China) Kincheng Banking Corporation (keep progress with time, expended and grown to become one of the top 500 banks in the world. ) Banks Owned by the Central Government NameHeadquarter Agricultural Bank of ChinaBeijing

Bank of ChinaBeijing Bank of CommunicationsShanghai Industrial and Commercial Bank of ChinaBeijing People’s Bank of ChinaBeijing Xiamen International BankXiamen Postal Saving Bank of ChinaBeijing China CITIC BankBeijing China Construction BankBeijing China Development BankBeijing Exim Bank of ChinaBeijing Hua Xia BankBeijing Banks Owned By Local Governments Bank of JinzhouJinzhou Bank of JilinChangchun Harbin BankHarbin Industrial BankFuzhou Guangdong Development BankGuangzhou Bank of NingboNingbo Shenzhen City Commercial BankShenzhen Shenzhen Development BankShenzhen

Zhejiang Tailon Commercial BankTaizhou Ping An BankShenzhen Bank of ShanghaiShanghai Bank of BeijingBeijing Bohai BankTianjin China Merchants BankShenzhen Dalian BankDalian Shengjing BankShenyang Shanghai Pudong Development BankShanghai Private Owned Banks * China Minsheng Banking Corp. , Ltd. * Taizhou City Bank. Other Banks * SiliBank Bank Incorporated in the Special Administrative Regions * Wing Hang Bank Limited. (Bunco Wang Hang) Banks in Hong Kong * City Bank Limited. * CITIC Ki Wahl Bank Limited. * Dah Sing Bank Limited. * Futon Bank Limited. * Hang Sang Bank Limited.

* Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited. * Wing Lung Bank Limited. * Bank of China (Hong Kong) Limited. * Bank of East Asia Limited. * China Construction Bank Corporation Limited. * Chiyu Banking Corporation Limited. * Chong Hang Bank Limited. * Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited. * MEVAS Bank Limited. * Nan Yang Commercial Bank Limited. * Public Bank Limited. * Shanghai Commercial Bank Limited. * Standard Bank Asia Limited. * Standard Chartered Bank Limited. * Tai Sang Bank Limited. * Tai Yau Bank Limited. Macau * Banco Nacional Ultramarino * China Construction Bank Corporation Limited.

* Banco Commercial de Macau. * Banco Esparto Santo Asia Limited. * The Macau Chinese Bank Limited. * Temple Zone Asian Bank Limited. * Luso International Banking Limited. * Seng Heng Bank Limited. * Tai Fung Bank Limited. Local Corporation The China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) announce on 24 December 2006 its approval for nine foreign funded Banks to start their preparatory work for setting up local corporation in China. Currently even more banks have been able to incorporate locally in china. * Shin hen Bank (South Korea)

* Standard Chartered Bank (United Kingdom) * Wing Hang Bank (Hong Kong) * Dah Sing Bank (Hong Kong) * DBS Bank (Singapore) * Hang Seng Bank (Hong Kong) * The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. * JPMorgan Chase bank (United States) * Mizuho Corporate Bank (Japan) * Overseas Chinese Banking Corporation (Singapore) * United Overseas Bank (Singapore) * Woori Bank (South Korea) * ABN AMRO (Netherlands) (Now RBS China due to mergin) * Australia and New Zealand Banking Group * The Bank of East Asia (Hong Kong) * The Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ (Japan) * Citi Bank (United States)