Organizational Change

A. Macro 1. John Everet will act as the playboy by displaying a lack of involvement through his joking around. 2. John will display dominating behavior in order to assert his superiority. He will also interrupt others by talking about activities not related to the team building activities. B. Micro 1. John's team will display blocking behavior by joking around and letting others know that he doesn't take the retreat seriously. He will purposefully annoy the others teams focused on team building. 2. John and several others will leave the retreat early on the last day and find a way to interrupt the other teams focused on team building.

John and several others will not return for the early afternoon session and the retreat will end with the rest of the members drifting off into little groups and doing whatever they want. II. Causes 1. The XRS Project team is not turning out any results and John Everet has been the team manager for over two years. 2. John Everet is under a lot of pressure from his department head to get the project moving at a faster pace. 3. The company will require an outsider from another division to go along on the annual retreat and help with the training on team retreats and to bring in a new perspective to the project.

III. Systems affected 1. "Structural: The structure of the organization will be broken down because John will not take the team training seriously. 2. Psychosocial: The psychosocial system functioning of the organization will not be present. Norms are the organized and shared ideas regarding what group members should do and feel, how this behavior should be regulated, and what sanctions should be applied when behavior does not coincide with social expectations. 3. Technical: There were no technical systems affected. 4.

Managerial: A better understanding of the XRS Project team's behavior will be needed to help John adapt to the role of coach. There needs to be a stronger reliance of the work team meaning that John must have the ability to help the team become more keenly aware of how it is operating. A work team that is more keenly aware of how it operates will be better able to analyze and solve its own problems. 5. Goals: There didn't appear to be any goals set for the XRS Project team so therefore they had not turned out any results in over two years.

IV. Alternatives 1. The manager uses must use several techniques to analyze the communications processes in the work group: Observe: How often and how long does each member talk during a group discussion? These observations can be easily recorded on paper and referred to later when analyzing group behavior. It is also useful to keep a record of who talks to whom or to use a sociogram. Identify: Who are the most influential listeners in the group? Noticing eye contact between members can give insights on the communication processes.

Sometimes one person, and perhaps not even the person who speaks most frequently, is the one focused on by others as they speak. Interruptions: Who interrupts whom? Is there a pattern to the interruptions? What are the apparent effects of the interruptions? 2. Identifying member roles and functions. The manager must be aware of the different member roles that individuals play in the group. Typically roles include such elements as who is the technical expert, who is aggressive, who initiates the conversation, and who is the joke teller or tension reliever.

The group will also resolve control, power, and influence issues. 3. An effective work group must be able to identify problems, examine possible actions, and make decisions. Problem-solving begins with gathering the necessary information and identifying problem areas. Alternatives are then generated, along with forecasts of possible results. An alternative is chosen, and a detailed plan of action is formulated. The decision is implemented, and finally an evaluation of the decision is made. 4.

Norms are the organized and shared ideas regarding what group members should do and feel, how this behavior should be regulated, and what sanctions should be applied when behavior does not coincide with social expectations. Process interventions will help the group understand its norms and whether they are helpful or dysfunctional. 5. Process interventions help the work group understand the impact of leadership styles and authority issues. As the team goes about its task, a leader will emerge to perform a leadership function, then move back into more of a follower role.

Another person will emerge and perform another leadership function, and so on. Consequently, leadership functions should be widely shared among team members. A manager practicing process interventions encourages others to take leadership roles instead of dominating all the leadership functions. Although the work group is likely to have a formal leader, there will probably also be some informal leaders. Group members should share the leadership functions; for example, the members who perform the functions of gatekeeping, summarizing, or some other task or maintenance function will be behaving in the role of the leader.

V. Recommendations 1. Use group process skills to analyze the XRS Project team. Group process is used to see how the group goes about accomplishing its task. 2. Use process interventions to help the XRS Project team become more aware of the way it operates and the way its members are working with one another. " References Donald R. Brown and Don Harvey. (2006). An Experiential Approach to Organizational Development, 7th Ed. Chapter 7: Developing Excellence in Individuals: Process Intervention Skills. Pearson Education, Inc. , Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.