Office for Victims of Crime

Children who are well taken care of by their parents and are thus adequately supervised are at less odds to be involved in criminal activities. Studies have proven that. A dysfunctional family, on the other hand, which is commonly characterized by regular conflicts, parental negligence, poor communication because of absorption to outside activities by parents, are always assumed to be the breeding ground for delinquents (Venkatesh, 1997). Synthesis & Conclusion Essentially, the role of motivation in a person’s life is crucial to the understanding of human activities.

Motivation is never static because in life, there always presents a dynamic and changing pattern of needs. Internal and external motivation provides in brief, an astute way of explaining the “why’s” of people’s behaviors. No wonder then, that in general, educators handle pupils or learners in the light of this ideation. In the nature of gang and the development of attachment towards it by certain individuals, the processes and/or dynamics involved there have something to do with motivation.

Youth and children have needs and these needs are seemingly met within the milieu of a gang. It is also at this level that programs that initiate positive change and transformation must also be confronted and addressed. Successful and effective changes that inhibit any youngster from joining a gang incorporate motivational strategies. Approaches attracting the “gangster” include real or genuine understanding and consistent attention and physical care which meet the psychological needs of belongingness that according to Maslow is critical at their level.

This is also reinforced as well with Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development highlighting the needs of children and teens to young adulthood. In Erikson’s theory, needs of teens or adolescents for instance, depend on the resolution of identity versus role confusion (http://web. cortland. edu/andersmd/ERIK/sum. HTML) where peer relationships are important and crucial events. Teens basically need this deep camaraderie and unfortunately the environments from which they are nurtured contribute to their choices of friendships and the value they place on these relationships.

Because family is the true breeding ground for achievement and true success, great importance is now being given for the well-being of this important unit of the community. Children’s achievements and/or performance in school are directly influenced by their parents more than the school itself. The parents’ moral, emotional, and financial capacity are basic for children’s early training: e. g. the acquisition of educational resources depends so much on the parents’ determination to obtain them for the enhancement of their children’s education (Wiig, 2001).

Parents’ knowledge of the stages their children are into is crucial to the changes expected to happen; but that would not be enough. Catering to their needs is a little bit like walking in a thin rope with the awareness that anything might go wrong. The most important thing is preventive rather than the “reduction” part as the latter is more difficult to do than the first. Parents then or primary caregivers have a serious role in monitoring all the way from the first few years and the rest of the developing years. Reference: 1. Atkinson, Rita L. , Richard C. Atkinson, and Ernest R.

Hilgard. 1983. Introduction to Psychology. 8th ed. , New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. 2. Cramer, Craig, Bernadette Flynn, and Ann LaFave. 1997. Accessed February 18, 2008. <http://web. cortland. edu/andersmd/ERIK/sum. HTML> 3. Loeber, R. , and Farrington, D. P. , eds. 2001. Child Delinquents: Development, Intervention, and Service Needs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 4. Marx, Melvin H. 1976. Introduction to Psychology: Problems, Procedures, and Principles. Columbia: Collier MacMillan. 5. Morris, Charles G. , Maisto, Albert A. , 1999. Understanding Psychology.

4th ed. , Prentice Hall: New Jersey, pp. 315-316. 6. Smith, Ronald E. , Sarason, I. G. , and Sarason, B. R. 1982. Psychology: The Frontiers of Behavior. 2nd Ed. New York: Harper and Row Publishers. 7. _______OJJDP, Mar. 2003. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention is a component of the Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime. Accessed February 18, 2008. <http://:www. cato. org/testimony/ct- wc67. html.

> 8. ______U. S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs. March 2003. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Accessed February 18, 2008. <http://:www. cato. org/testimony/ct- wc67. html. 9. Venkatesh, S. ‘The social organization of street gang activity in an urban ghetto,’ American Journal of Sociology, vol. 103, No. 1, July 1997, pp. 82-111. 10. Wiig, J. K. 2001. Legal issues. In Child Delinquents: Development, Intervention, and Service Needs, edited by R. Loeber and D. P. Farrington. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. , pp. 323–338.