Nutrition and Health Unit 1

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1. Define what is meant by the term ‘healthy diet’.A healthy diet is likely to include a large number or variety of foods, from each of the food groups, as this allows us to get all the nutrients that we need.

2. Describe why the healthy diets of adults and children may be different. Provide at least three examples of these differences. Older children often have higher nutrient requirements than adults in order for them to grow properly, 15-to-18 year-old boys need more B vitamins, calcium, phosphorus and iron than adult men

3. Give an outline of at least three lifestyle diseases associated with unhealthy diets.


If you are significantly overweight, you need to avoid further weight gain and you need to lose weight. Excess body fat is a lot to carry and hard on your heart. Your lungs have to work harder, too.

2.heart diseaseCaused by a build-up of fatty deposits on the walls of the arteries around the heart e.g pizza, sweets, chocolate

c) cancercancers of the bowel, stomach, mouth, food pipe and breast.

4. Name three sources of energy in food. Then, identify the amount of energy that 1g of each source provides.

Proteins – essential to growth and repair of muscle and other body tissues -1 gram = 4 calories Fats – one source of energy and important in relation to fat soluble vitamins- 1 gram = 9 calories Carbohydrates – our main source of energy -1 gram = 4 calories

5. Based on your own diet and lifestyle…

• Estimate your own Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)• Estimate your own Physical Activity Level (PAL)• Based on these BMR and PAL values, what is your total energy requirement?

Basal Metabolic Rate=1681.59

Physical Activity Level

140lbs x 17 = 2380

1681.59×1.41=2371Energy requirement – could work hard with the amount of energy im taking in

6. Identify at least two factors that can affect a person’s energy requirements.

• Age• Gender

7. For a person you know who wishes to manage their weight, outline the relationship between their energy intake and energy expenditure and the impact this can have on their weight.

If you don’t eat loads off food and have loads off excise you will be under weight If you eat loads off food and don’t do much excise you will be over weight If you do equal amounts off both you will be the right weight

8. Why is it important to control your salt intake?

It is important to control you salt intake because:It can lead to high blood pressure.• Heart problems• Cardiovascular disease• Increase the risk of death

9. Complete the table below with information on the five food groups.

• In the left-hand column, list the five food groups.• In the right-hand column, provide at least two examples of foods belonging to each of the five food groups.

An example has been provided to help you get started.

|Food groups |Examples | |Example: |Example: | |Milk and dairy foods |Milk, cheese, cottage cheese, yoghurt | |1. Protein |Fish | | |Cheese | ||Eggs | | |Meat | |2. Fat |pizza | | |chips | | |chocolate | |3. water |tea/coffee | | |milk | | |squash | |4. Vitamins |fruit | | |veg | |5. carbohydrates |Pasta | | |bread | | | |

10. Describe at least two examples of current healthy eating advice.

Eat the right number of calories for how active you are.

Eat a wide range of foods to ensure that you’re getting a balanced diet and that your body is receiving all the nutrients it needs.

11. Why do you think it is important to eat a wide variety of foods as part of a healthy diet?

Food variety means eating a wide variety of foods (a balanced diet) from within and across each of the five food groups, in the amounts recommended. Eating many different foods helps maintain a healthy, well-balanced and interesting diet that provides adequate nutrition. Eating a variety of foods can help prevent diseases such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease.

12. Define what is meant by the term ‘nutrients’.

Nutrients are small substances that are taken up by the cells to run the metabolism. For example, protein is not the nutrients for the cell it is the amino acid, the unit of protein which serves as nutrient. Starch is not the nutrient, but its unit, glucose is.

13. Use the table below to describe the six key nutrients.

• In the first column, list the six key nutrients needed by the body. • In the second column, describe the foods that can provide each nutrient. • In the final column, describe the impact that each nutrient can have on your health (either positive or negative).

|Key nutrients |Food sources |Health impact | |1. protein |Meat, Eggs and dairy |Positive but can be negative if have to much | | | | | |2. carbohydrates |Pasta, rise, potatoes |To much can causes obesity | | | | | |3. fat |Dariy products,biscults and cakes |If you eat to much you will become fat. | | | | | |4. vitamins |Green veg, oranges |richsources of calcium, magnesium, | | | |potassium, iron, beta-carotene, vitamin | | | |B-complex, vitamin-C, vitamin A, and vitamin | | | |K | |5. calcium |Milk, yogurt, hard cheeses, fortified |Essential for bone growth and strength, blood| | |cereals, spinach |clotting, muscle contraction | |6. water |Any liquid drink |You need to drink so you don’t dehydrate | | | | |

14. Describe how potential changes in your lifestyle / activity levels may influence your need for various nutrients.

If you start to go to the gym or do regular running your body will need more nutrients so you get the right energy to do these things.

15. Explain the importance of adequate fluid intake as part of a healthy diet.

Water is a major component of every body cell, tissue and organ. It plays an important role in almost every body function, including, Temperature regulation, Transportation of oxygen and nutrients through the blood.

16. Prepare a healthy eating plan for three days. In your plan, you should explain:

• Why you selected the foods that are used in the plan (what factors did you consider when creating your plan?). • How you will prepare the food and why that preparation method is a healthy option. • Other cooking methods that you have avoided and how these methods can affect the nutritional values of foods.

Day1Breakfast-2/3 slices of toast, cup of tea and 3biscuits.Lunch- smoked ham sandwich with a bottle of water.Dinner-steak with mixed veg and a glass of water.

Breakfast- I have chosen bread because it is a good source of carbohydrates, tea and biscuits falls in the fat category Lunch-

Day2Breakfast-cereal, semi skimmed milk, glass of pure apple juice. Lunch-chicken and tomato pasta with a bottle of water.Dinner-tuna and cucumber on brown bread, water or orange juice

Day3Breakfast-beans on toast on 50/50 breadLunch-oatcakes and low fat cheese, glass of waterDinner-cooked chicken dinner with a glass of apple juice