1. B. protection/avoidance strategies
2. B. cultural heterogeneity.
3. D. local crimes will be replaced by global crimes
4. C. crime control
5. A. increased infant and maternal health care
6. A. the impact of criminology on social policy
7. B. New Zealand
8. D. the tools of crime
— Knowledge of the tools of crime is necessary for creating policies governing new technologies that are being adapted for criminal uses, like computer-based identity theft. Knowledge of the methods of crime is necessary to establish policies that govern, for example, when probable cause exists that a crime was committed, for the purposes of obtaining a warrant. Lastly, creating an effective crime prevention policy requires an understanding of the causes of crime, and oftentimes crime-fighting and prevention can be seen as one in the same.
Thus, all these answers are right except the knowledge of the effects of crime, which is possibly relevant in creating sentencing policies and creating policies to prioritize the investigation of crimes with the worst effects. I put down the tools of crime because the chapters discussed the identity theft and intellectual piracy problems at length.
9. D. the judge
10. D. new criminal groups