NAFTA was formed by Canada, the United States and Mexico in January 1994 for the economic growth and increasing the living standard of the people of the area in the said countries and for the formation of world’s largest free trade area as well. NAFTA set a trend for the liberalization of trade to follow in the world. Each NAFTA country levies minimum tariff when importing good from the other NAFTA country. NAFTA rules are made very clear and simple for the facility of producers, exporters and importers of NAFTA countries people. Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT)
After experiencing the horrible losses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki international community realized the unbearable loss and destruction of the Nuclear weapons and importance of nuclear technology. The main aim was to stop the spread of the technology so that expected nuclear wars may be averted. Consultations with peaceful nuclear powers users started in 1946 so that an international system may be prepared for the countries for acquiring technology under proper parameters. In the beginning countries reached on no consensus due to big political differences between the big countries.
Both the United States and the Soviet Union took the advantage and heaped their stocks of nuclear weapons. The treaty become official in 1970. 188 countries signed the treaty in which 5 countries possess nuclear weapon. The main aim of this treaty is “Atom for Peace” as it could be used in many peaceful purposes like in Pakistan electricity problems may be solved because Pakistan lacks energy resources. After experiencing nuclear test India and Pakistan are constantly being pressurized for signing the NPT agreement. Human Rights
According to the definitions of Human Rights on its website “From the Human Rights Resource Center: Human rights are those basic standards without which people cannot live in dignity. To violate someone’s human rights is to treat that person as though she or he were not a human being”. (http://www. unpo. org/article. php? id=4956) General Assembly of the United Nations on 10th December 1948 adopted Human Rights full text "to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories”.
(http://www. un. org/Overview/rights. html) It is clearly mentioned in the Article 1 of Human Rights that “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood”. In the articles it has also been mentioned that slavery, torture, inhuman behavior, arbitrary arrest, detention or exile, and punishment is prohibited. In the eyes of human rights laws everyone is equal to others, discriminate behavior is not allowed.
No one shall be deprived of nationality or right to change his nationality. Marriage shall be entered into force with mutual understanding of both man and woman. Forced marriage is against human rights laws. Everybody has fundamental right living in the family and State will provide legal protection to the family. Freedom of thought, religion, worship and also freedom to change the religion is allowed in human rights. Equal right should be given to the access of public properties of the country. Freedom to choose government representative is also allowed.
Freedom to work freely with his choice regarding employment and protection against unemployment. Everyone is given freedom of education with his choice. Moral and material interest for his betterment. (http://www. un. org/Overview/rights. html) From the above definition it is quite clear that Almighty God has created the all human beings equally. No one has superior rights upon other. They have the equal right to enjoy the facilities of nature available on the earth. But for the sake of vested interest and getting extra ordinary benefits which are others such right are violated with different methods.
Violation of human rights may be locally or internationally. They are being violated everywhere in the world. Recent examples of the violations of Human rights are attack of the United States on Iraq and Afghanistan without any genuine reason. Both countries are far behind comparing with the United States but to show the power and capture the resources of the said country they do not consider such violations as unfair. On the other hand, the United States and other European countries keep deep watch on the human violations in the weak countries.
Amnesty International publishes report regarding violations of human right committed by the different poor countries although they are very nominal but on that pretext considerable trade restrictions are imposed on the poor countries and such restrictions make these countries weaker day by day. Such super powers even do not bother to obey the rules of POWs although a comprehensive rule has been passed to treat such prisoners but presently we are watching the violations of such rules in Nicaragua jails where dogs are opened on the prisoners, which is quite against the rules of POWs.
Super powers do not pay any attention towards any appeal or motion raised by the Human rights organizations like Amnesty International or International League of Human Rights. Many times these organizations have pointed out towards the atrocities committed by the big countries. Recently Amnesty International registered its complaints against USA for violating the POWs Geneva convention resolutions in Nicaragua jails. Sometime silence of such organizations becomes question mark as they are funded by the big countries.
To some extent these organizations are successful and unsuccessful as well because of above elaborated reasons. The working of these organizations may be improved for getting their goals if they work honestly, unbiased (religion/creed) and without keeping in the mind the vested interests of super powers. If such organizations equally treat all human beings / countries than their performance will be overwhelming. Sometime these organizations deliberately delays for providing help the example of this is genocide of Muslims in Bosnia Herzegovina some years ago.
When a number of and countless precious lives were wasted although they were helped by the human welfare organizations even war crimes were initiated against the responsible but that was too late. Collective graves were found where hundreds to thousand were buried alive and they were innocent. Recent violation of human rights is Iraq and Afghanistan although they are sovereign states working under the United Nations but citizens of these countries are helpless and cannot live freely and have constant threat of death due to prevailing law and order situation in the said countries.
Even they do not have their desired government and the governments are imposed on them and imposers are called champion of democracy. Peace Keeping With Collective Security In the recent years terrorism has been tremendously increased and coping with this situation for a single country has almost become impossible. It becomes easy when such evils are eradicated with collective help and force. In such circumstances need to fight against illegal and inhuman activities have been felt more. Normally all forces of the world are trained on specific standards but owing to some environment and specialized skills some forces have edge upon others.
Like some forces fight fine in deserts, some on the mountains and some in the forests. With the help of such skills, fighting with enemies becomes easy and precious time and corps are not wasted. These forces combat with the enemies under the umbrella of the United Nations. Such forces are also called allied forces. Although this is an old concept to fight collective against the enemies but it is still working like allied forces are doing their jobs in Iraq, Afghanistan and such forces also perform their duties for ensuring peace in the territory.
Allied forces are also working under the umbrella of NATO successfully. Allied forced also performs the duty of ensuring peace other than combating with the enemies / terrorists. Pakistan is also actively taking part in the allied forces under the United Nations charter. They are taking part in the war in Afghanistan and providing full assistances to the western forces for ensuring peace and stability. In Afghanistan, Pakistani forces are more comfortable than any other due to language and favorable atmosphere.
Western forces feel the presence of Pakistan forces in Afghanistan as a good source. Recently Pakistan army has been awarded high rank award in Congo for keeping peace in the territory. The United Nations hails the performance of Pakistan Army therefore this army is deployed in the affected areas. Pakistan army also took part in ensuing peace Bosnia Herzegovina. Some complaints have also been received against allied forces, they were found guilty of discriminate behavior on the grounds of religion, creed, language and color.
Due to such behavior these forces are not liked in the deployed area. Local people do not like them especially on the religious grounds. If such forces work indiscriminately without keeping in mind religion, creed, language and color number of complaints may be avoided. Main aim of the forces should be to help the local people without ensuring vested interest of the big powers. People should be helped indiscriminately. Allied forces should take care regarding religion, worship placed, social values and other sensitive issues.
Such issues should be given due care. Allied forces should be given proper training for such issues before deployment. If such measures are taken into account good resulted may be achieved which is the main aim of the United Nations for deploying such forces. To avoid the precious loss of such forces it is very necessary that well trained soldiers may be sent in the affected areas, they should be well equipped with latest weapons and technology as the opponents / enemies are well equipped with all required ornaments and technology.
Terrorists even do not hesitate to use the latest technology for destruction. In such circumstances, allied forces comprising of different armies of the world will face precious loss of corps and it will also demoralize them for taking part in the future. Such allied also provides good financial help to the soldiers of poor countries. In return of their services they are highly paid by the United National which provide foreign exchange to their countries as well as increase the standard of living of the soldiers and their families.
In poor countries soldiers are found anxious to take part in such allied forces for getting the above said benefits. After taking part in such allied forces soldiers come to know about using latest technology and latest weapons being used by army of developed countries. In short benefits of using such forces in the affected areas are higher than complaints and these complaints may be avoided after adopting certain measures.
United Nations Documentation Guide http://www. un. org/Depts/dhl/resguide/specil. htm#intro Accessed December 2, 2006 International Criminal Tribunals