National service training program in the Philippines

Background of the Study Republic Act No. 9163, otherwise known as “An Act Establishing the National Service Training Program (NSTP) for Tertiary Level Students”, amending for the Purpose Republic Act 7077 and Presidential Decree No. 1706, and for other purposes and was signed into law in January 23, 2002, envisioned to address public clamour for reforms in the ROTC Program. The amendment of RA 7077 ushered in college students to be marching under a different tune. CWTS and LTS, both non-military in nature, were born.

NSTP addresses the need for national program of youth development and mobilization for the task of nation building. In view of the said scheme and aims, the Program exists and operates in the context of education and national security systems, both of which are important parts of the larger system of national development and security policy.

This potentially synergistic relationship between education and defense needs to be understood better, in view of the systematic link between national development and national security, a vital point relevant to enhanced national service training for the Filipino youth. Now that it is barely seven years of NSTP implementation and abolishing it in view of its perceived irrelevancy and mediocrity is not at all a solution.

Assuming for the moment the possibility of the Program’s infirmities, prudence dictates that at the outset diagnostics are in order. To set aside misleading biases and false impressions of the program, this assessment study may serve as empirical evidence. There is of course no denying the changes and development of NSTP overtime, in dealing with its shortcomings in terms of its management systems. They must be dealt with resolutely, addressed directly and accurately, strengthening its implementation and nourishing its crucial goal of contributing and developing better citizens.

The assessment of the group of educational leaders is a critique not on the NSTP alone. It provides a basis in elevating the quality of citizenship and its outcomes – the development of our youth in whose hands lie the future of the country. It may not be amiss to say that the program’s outputs and outcomes depend largely on the quality of its leaders – the NSTP implementers. Hence, the study on the implementation of the program components of NSTP particularly the non-ROTC training components.

Statement of the Problem The study purported to ascertain the implementation of the non-military program components, that is, CWTS and LTS of the National Service Training Program (NSTP) as experienced by select higher educational institutions (HEIs), public and private, in the different parts of the country as a basis for evolving a practical NSTP implementation guide. In more specific terms, this research endeavor is aimed at providing answers to the questions stated hereunder: 1. How are the non-military program components of NSTP implemented by the public and private HEIs may be described, in terms of: a. Training Management comprised of:

1. average number of trainees, 2. size of training staff, and 3. ratio of trainer to trainee; b. Training Content and Strategies covering: 1. learning themes/topics, 2. methodologies, 3. activities, and 4. mode of trainer, trainee and project evaluation; c. Training Practicum with emphasis on: 1. areas of concentration of trainees’ practicum, and 2. target participants of the practicum? 2. What is the extent of implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP in the public and private HEIs along the following areas of concern: a. Program Objectives; b. Administration and Organization; c. Curriculum; d. Training Staff and Staff Development; e. Student- Trainee Management; f. Community/Extension Program; g. Resource Management; and h. Information Management/Program Monitoring and Evaluation?

2.1 How do the extent of implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP differ in the public and private HEIs? 3. What are the problems and their level of seriousness encountered by the public and private HEIs in the implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP? 3.1 How do the level of problems encountered in the implementation of the non-military program components differ in the private and public HEIs? 4. What implementer’s guide can be formulated in order to enrich the implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP by the public and private HEIs?

Research Design Research Method Used This study on the assessment of the extent of implementation of the NSTP non-military program components in the private and public HEIs in the Philippines employed the descriptive method of research.

The main data-gathering instrument employed was the researcher- formulated questionnaire that sought to determine the status of implementation and problems of the non-military program components of NSTP. For purposes of triangulation, the data elicited from the respondents through the questionnaire was reinforced with focus group discussion (FGD) and key informant interview with participants Sampling Frame

The study covered HEIs, categorized into private and public institutions of higher learning, across the country from the sixteen (16) regions. A total of one hundred twenty-eight (128) samples, sixty five (65) from the private HEIs and sixty-three (63) from the public HEIs served as respondents. Sampling Design

The researcher floated the survey-questionnaire to the respondents with the assistance of the Philippine Society of NSTP Educators and Implementers, Incorporated (PSNEI, Inc.) to NSTP implementers in attendance in national conventions of NSTP educators and implementers in 2007. This strategy was devised in order to ensure high rate of retrieval of questionnaire, not to mention the time and resource consideration, in view of the national scope of the study. This mode of sampling procedure is termed purposive sampling.

Unit of Analysis For Sub-Problems 1 The characteristics of the non-military program components of NSTP were described in terms of frequency counts and percentage distribution. For Sub-Problem 2

For purposes of determining the extent of implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP, measure of central tendency using mean guided by the 5-point Likert scale was instituted. For Sub-Problem 3

In order to ascertain the level of seriousness of the problems encountered in the implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP, measure of central tendency using mean with range of means that corresponds to the 3-point Likert scale was employed:

For Sub-Problems 2.1 and 3.1 The significant difference on the extent of implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP as well as the problems encountered thereof between private and state-owned HEIs were determined by using the t-test for paired samples.

For Sub Problem 4 An enriched implementation guide for implementers of the non-military program components of NSTP was formulated by analysis of the findings of the study and integrating jointly the most pertinent, relevant and tried-and-tested processes and practices in the different HEIs nationwide.

Summary of Significant Findings

Characteristics of the Non-Military Program Components of NSTP in the Public and Private HEIs

The HEIs implementing the non-military program component of NSTP may characterized in terms of the following: On Training Management o The average number of trainees ranges from more than 2000 or lesser. A total of 53% registered an enrollment in non-military program components from 501 to 200 trainees per semester. o The average NSTP training staff handling the non-military program components is from 4-9 members. o The average trainer-trainee ratio is 1:51 to 100

On Training Content/Strategies o The top 5 topics with more than 90% of the HEIs included in their program of institution along the non-military program components of NSTP are as follows: 1. Introduction to NSTP/Orientation.

2. Leadership. 3. Good Citizenship. 4. Identifying Community Needs. 5. Self-Awareness/Values Orientation/Formation. In the program of instruction of HEIs conformed to a great extent with the CHED-prescribed set of topics. HEIs used a variety of instructional/training methodology as lecture, community immersion, participative discussion/plenary session, role playing and structured as well as unstructured learning exercises. These methodologies aimed to stir the interests of the student-trainees.

They devised varied assessment techniques and tools that include quizzes, reports projects, journal, and others to measure students’ performance. Spot checking performance evaluation and the like were used to evaluate performance of trainers while documentary report, video presentation, etc. for projects and activities. On Training Practicum

The nature of community/extension projects and activities undertaken by the trainees of the non-military program components were along the field of environmental protection, community health and sanitation, community organizing, business technology and entrepreneurship, coastal clean-up and many more. Sectors served were children, out-of-school youth, farmers/agricultural works, urban poor and others. The Extent of Implementation of the Non-Military Program

Components of NSTP along the Various area of Concern

The following areas of concern were assessed in terms of the extent of implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP by the private and public HEIs. Area of Concern in the Implementation of the Non-Military Program Extent of Implementation Components of NSTP

• Program ObjectivesOutstandingly Implemented • Administration and OrganizationSatisfactorily Implemented • CurriculumOutstandingly Implemented • Training Staff and Staff DevelopmentSatisfactorily Implemented • Student-Trainee ManagementSatisfactorily Implemented • Community/Extension ProgramSatisfactorily Implemented • Resource ManagementSatisfactorily Implemented • Information Management/ Program Monitoring and EvaluationSatisfactorily Implemented

The over-all extent of implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP by the public and private HEIs is satisfactorily implemented.

These are only three of the several indicators per area of concern had a rating below “satisfactorily implemented”, the organization and mobilization of the members of NSRC who are graduates of the non-military training components, along the area of student-management trainee; existence of a functional NSTP Learning Resource Center under the area of resource management; and on the area of administration and organization, the contracting of services of accredited NGOs to aid in the implementation of the non-military training components. The Level of Seriousness of Problems Encountered

in the Implementation of the Military Program Components of NSTP

The average Level of Seriousness of problems encountered in the implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP along the 8 of areas of concerns as perceived by the HEIs, public and private, has a descriptive equivalent of “not serious.”

The following issues and concerns under the 8 problem areas were rated “serious”. • Too many topics prescribed to be included in the programs of instruction/syllabi of the non-military program components. • Lack of provisions for training of trainers. • Seemingly unmanageable number of trainees handled by trainers per session/training group. • Manifestation of lack of commitment to and lack of internalization of the aims of NSTP by the student-trainees.

• Lack of facilities, equipments and supplies needed for the daily operation of the non-military program components. • No clean direction for the organization and mobilization of the graduates of the non-military program components of NSTP in the NSRC. • Lack of provision in the training of NSRC reservists. • Lack of exposure of students for NSTP-related organizations/association. • Lukewarm attitude of community people target beneficiaries towards NSTP-related projects and activities. • Lack of support to the Program from the government, non-government and people’s organizations.

• Lack of funds to support/sustain the Program of extension. • Lack of functional networks for the effective and sustainable operation of the Programs. • Low-level of sustainability of the community/extension projects. • Lack of Fund support to the Program due to the non-utilization of the NSTP Trust Fund. • Lack of available income-generating sources to augment NSTP Trust Fund.

• Unavailability/Non-Operational NSTP office/Resource Learning Center. • Lack of available relevant instrument or evaluation of the Program, the trainers and trainees. • Absence of prescribed format of documentation of project. Significance of Difference Between the Public and Private HEIs in terms of the Extent of Implementation of the

Non-Military Program Components of NSTP and the Perceived Level of Seriousness of Problems Along the 8 areas of implementation concerns

Based on the results, application of t-test to ascertain the significance difference on the extent of seriousness of problems encountered in the non-military program components, there is no significant difference in the extent of implementation and the level of seriousness of problems encountered along the 8 areas of concern in the non-military program components of NSTP by the public and private HEIs.

Research-Based Guide for the NSTP Implementation

The enriched Guide for Implementation of NSTP prepared by the researcher, formulated on the basis of the results of the study is envisioned to aid the implementation of the non-military program components for NSTP. This guide contains basic information, concepts and procedures pertaining to the different areas of Program implementation in the HEIs across the country. Included in the Guide are samples of forms and documents of different sorts to serve as guide for the implementers.

One of the highlight of the Guide is the NSTP Implementation Framework entitled The NSTP-CARES for CHANGE Model (Vidal’s Framework for Implementation of the Non-Military Components of NSTP) (see attached document).

Conclusions

On basis of the significant findings, the following conclusions are arrived at: The profile of the HEIs implementing the non-military program components of NSTP indicates that there is a significant number of students patronizing CWTS and LTS who are handled by trainors on a 1:less than 50 to above 100 ratio. In view of the ratio, HEIs devised various types of schemes of monitoring trainees and trainors performances as well as project and activities done.

There are scores of topics included in the training program especially the first phase of the training program against a limited time allotment totaling to 50 to 90 hours as mandated by the NSTP Law.

For NSTP 2, HEIs have required their NSTP undergoing the non-military program components to do community/extension projects and activities in the different communities and institutions servicing marginalized sectors. This way, the communities and the underserved sectors benefit, to a varying extent, from projects and activities like livelihood skills training, literacy projects, community immersion-related undertakings and so many more. As the non-military program components of NSTP are relatively new educational program.

There are perceived problems along the 8 areas of NSTP. Implementation concerns though, in general, the over-all extent of implementation of the CWTS and LTS program components by public and private HEIs was fairly implemented. The public and private HEIs implementing the non military program components of NSTP perceived the certain problems along the following areas of implementation concerns that are considered to “serious” in nature:

Student trainee management(x=1.76)

Community/extension program (x=1.71) Information management/ monitoring and evaluation(x=1.67)

The extent of implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP and the level of seriousness of problems implementation encountered by the public and private HEIs have the same and comparable extent of implementation and perceived level of seriousness of problems along the areas of concern as problems objectives, administration and organization, curriculum training, staff and staff development, community/extension program, generation and utilization of resources, information management/program monitoring and evaluation There is a dearth of instructional and training materials relative to the non-military program components.

Hence, the NSTP implementers are wanting of having a basis for implementation to serve as frame in the operation of the non-military program components. The guide formulated intended for NSTP non-military program component implementers aims to prescribe basis on how to deal with the areas of concern along their implementation. This is to do away with the practice of some implementers to apply the trial and error scheme.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions drawn, the following recommendations are offered: 1. The quality of the non-military program components of NSTP implemented by the HEIs may be enhanced by improving training management, upgrading the training content, the curriculum in addressing the specific concerns of the HEIs and their communities, localizing training strategies to meet the requirements of the trainees and of the trainers, and enriching the training practicum program to attain greater relevancy and sustainability of the NSTP-based community/extension projects and activities implemented.

2. In recognition of the “fairly implemented” extent of implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP by the public and private HEIs along the 8 areas of implementation concerns.

HEIs are exhorted to assess and re-visit program implementation of CWTS and LTS in their respective institutions of higher learning. The NSTP implementers may refer to the questionnaire constructed by the researcher in this study and the CHED-prepared quality rubric for National Service Training Program 3. To lessen if not totally annihilate, the “serious” problems encountered by HEIs in the implementation of the non-military programs of NSTP, SWOT analysis is highly recommended to serve as basis for program review and repackaging to better address the aims of CWTS and LTS.

4. The guide for NSTP implementation maybe used by the HEIs for reference purposes. As the guide basically contains information and data elicited from various sources, it can be revised to include additional parts of preclude sections so as to attain greater relevancy. 5. Further studies be conducted to thoroughly assess the Program delving on a comparative study of the implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP by region.

Bibliography

Books

Calmorin, Laurentina P., et al 1995Methods of Research and Thesis Writing, Rex Bookstore, Quezon City, Philippines

Gonzales, Vivian A. 2002Students’ Transformation and Enrich- ment for Truth- Values Integration and Promotion (STET-VIP) National Service Training Program (NSTP) Trainor’s Handbook. SIKAP/STRIVE Foundation Inc., Laguna.

Katz, Daniel and Robert L. Kahn 1966The Social Psychology of Organizations. John Wiley, New York, USA.

Polit, Denise F. and Bernadette P. Hungler 1999Nursing Research: Principles and Methods. Williams and Wilkins. Philadelpia Lippincott, USA.

Government Documents and CHED Issuances

The 1987 Philippine Constitution

Republic Act No. 9163“An Act Establishing the National Service Training Program (NSTP) for Tertiary Level Students, Amending for the Purpose Republic Act No. 7077 and Presidential Decree No. 1706, and for Other Purposes. 2001

Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of the National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001

Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of the National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001

CHED Memorandum Order No. 5, series of 2003

Unpublished Research Materials

Barnachea, Saturnina A 2004“Assessment of the Teacher Development Program in Vigan City District,” Unpublished Thesis, University of Northern Philippines Graduate School, Vigan City, Philippines.

Casiano, Michael N.“Instructional Materials in Grade III 2004Makabayan: Their Appropriateness Towards the Achievement of the

Desired Learning Outcomes,” Unpublished Dissertation, University of Luzon, Dagupan City.

Castro, Ma. Celeste Y. 2005. “Proposed CWTS and LTS Programs for the Three (3) Adopted Barangays of Lyceum Northwestern University.” Unpublished Thesis, Lyceum Northwestern University, Dagupan City.

Damot-Tino, Marilou A. 2006“Critical Success Factors in the System Implementation of the National Service Training Program in the Bicol Region.” Unpublished Dissertation, University of Saint Anthony, Iriga City.

Gacos, Alvin G. 2007“Effectiveness of Community Immersion of Civic Welfare Training Service at the Technological University of the Philippines, Manila, SY 2004- 2006,” Unpublished Thesis, Technological University of the Philippines, Manila.

Gonzales, Vivian A. 2001“An Assessment of the Expanded ROTC Program’s Civic Welfare Service and Its Implications on the National Peace and Development Plan.” Unpublished Dissertation, University of the Philippines-Los Banos, Laguna.

Jameri, Hadjad T. 2000. “Problems in the Implementation of the Non-Formal Education Program in Region Region IX: Basis for Planning A Training Program,” Unpublished Dissertation, Misamis University, Ozamiz City.

Mandapat, Jose Emmanuel C. 2003“Proposed Minimum Learning Essentials for the Teaching of Religion in the Archdiocesan Schools of Lingayen- Dagupan,” Unpublished Dissertation, University of Luzon, Dagupan City.

Muñoz, Marnito C. 2004“Acceptability of the National Service Training Program in Selected Institutions in the National Capital Region: Inputs to Strengthen Policy Implementation.” Unpublished Dissertation, Technological University of the Philippines, Manila.

Speeches/Lectures

Arcega, Raymund P. 2004“The NSTP-Core Values: The Foundation of an Effective National Service Training Program- Civic Welfare Training Service Program.” Lecture, 2nd National Congress of

National Service Training Program- Civic Welfare Training Service (NSTP-CWTS) Implementors, Manila Bernal, Freddie T. 2004“The NSTP-CWTS Overview and Frame- work for Monitoring and Evaluation” Lecture, 2nd National Congress of National Service Training Program- Civic Welfare Training Service

Convention Proceedings

2003Proceedings of First National Congress of the National Service Training Program-Civic Welfare Training Service (NSTP-CWTS) Implementors, Pampanga.

2003Waging a Different War. First Annual Convention Proceedings, Values Integration and Promotion- Civic Welfare Training Service (VIP-CWTS) National Training Services Program (NSTP), Cebu City.

2004Waging a Different War. Second Annual Convention Proceedings, Values Integration and Promotion- Civic Welfare Training Service (VIP-CWTS) National Training Services Program (NSTP), Baguio City.

2005. Proceedings of the Third NationalCongress of National Service Training Program Civic Welfare Training Service (NSTP CWTS) Implementers, La Trinidad, Benguet.

2006. Proceedings of the Fourth National Congress of National Service Training Program Civic Welfare Training Service (NSTP CWTS) Implementers, New

Washington, Aklan.

Journal

Cular, Francisco C. 2004“CWTS: A Component of National Service Training Program,” College of Business Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, Polytechnic University of Phils., Manila.

Website

http://home.earthlink.net/~upmrotc

http://kilusan.net/lfs/modules

The NSTP-CARES for CHANGE Model (Vidal’s Framework for Implementation of the Non-Military Components of NSTP)

The Philippine Constitution provides that the defense of the state is a prime duty of the government and the people, and in fulfillment of this duty, all citizens may be required by law to render personal military or civil service. It further states that it is the duty of the citizen to contribute to our country’s development in the attainment and preservation of a just and orderly society. The National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001 mandates all citizens, both male and female, to fulfill this civic duty.

To respond to the urgent needs of this developing country today and in the foreseeable future, it is equally vital to develop and enhance civic consciousness among the young generation to ensure national preparedness. NSTP, therefore, enables the youth, as the most valuable resource of the Filipino nation, to be motivated, developed and utilized in regard to their responsibilities as citizens and in fulfillment of their civil obligations.

In the light of the foregoing rationale, the NSTP-CARES model (The Vidal’s Framework for Implementation on the Non-Military Program Components of NSTP) hereby postulated to serve as frame in the development of a relevant and responsive Program with emphasis to the non-military program components of NSTP, the Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS) and Literacy Training Service (LTS).

The Model assumes the classical input-process-output framework ion systems approach where the input is the training program for students enrolled in any baccalaureate degrees or two-degree technical-vocational associate courses that will equip them with knowledge, skill, attitudes and values required to become good citizens who shall inspire the members of the communities through service-driven endeavors and initiate development works for the much-avowed strong Republic.

Bridging the input and output is the process called CARES. The term “cares” is significant as it can be construed as its conceptual meaning of “reaching out or showing compassion” or the meaning of the acronym CARES spelled in the manner as follows:

C- Capability Enhancement for Leadership A- Assessment of Internal and External Environment R- Resource Organization and Social Mobilization E- Empowerment Scheme via Extension/Community Service S- Sustainable and Responsive Community Action

I. Capability Enhancement for Leadership This phase of the process is the initial step of capability student-trainees of the non-military program components of NSTP through training, education and development focusing on the good citizenship and transformational leadership paradigms.

The NSTP implementers and trainers, at this juncture, shall ensure the attainment of the learning outcomes among the trainees posited in the NSTP and as per IRR and CHED guidelines. NSTP trainers ought to be properly trained and instructionally prepared for them to effectively deliver the “goods” to their trainees.

Remember, one cannot give what he does not have.”

II. Assessment of Internal and External Environment A scan of the internal and external environment is an important part of the process. Environmental factors internal to the Higher Education Institution (HEI) are its resources and capabilities or weaknesses, and those external to the firm can be categorized as opportunities for organizational growth and threats in the system.

This phase involves a needs analysis strategy for student trainers and the community consisting of consultative and participatory modes involving stakeholders and interest groups. It is a good, if not best, practice to “test the water, before leap.” To do this, integration of the student-trainees with the people in the community is observed to conduct social analysis. The NSTP implementers should work collaboratively with the other units of their HEI so as to institute a multi-disciplinary, holistic and participative approach to addressing the problems and needs of the communities they serve.

III. Resource Organization and Social Mobilization A principle in Economics dictates that any organization deals with limited resources. Hence, these resources should be maximized. Management experts and practitioners categorized resources as human, technological, methodological and financial resources. It said that financial human resource management as the core of the concerns in the Program implementation of the non-military program components of NSTP, thus, focus is placed on resource generation and social mobilization in this phase.

Moreover, alliance building is highly encouraged among the NSTP implementers for them to explore and tap resources from outside the HEI.

IV. Empowerment Scheme via Extension/Community Service NSTP is a means for the student-trainees to value the critical role they play in nation building by having a deepened sense of awareness and involvement in real-life situations in the communities.

This is in pursuit of the two-pronged aim of the Program: 1. train the youth in terms of good citizenship in citing civic consciousness and national preparedness, among them; and

2. help empower depressed communities and marginalized sectors by way of community/extension works undertaken by student-trainees in line with the practicum requirements of NSTP. In pedagogical parlance, this modality is known as “service or experiential training.” Translated in the layman’s lingo, the methodology addresses to the adage, “experience is the best teacher.”

In this phase, operational mechanism for student community/extension initiatives are conceptualized and implemented to benefit especially the depressed, deprived and underprivileged (DDU) communities as well as disadvantaged groups.

V. Sustainable and Responsive Community Action The act of nation building is a Herculean and arduous task. Community/extension projects and activities are not “over-night solutions,” in the problems of the country. Development is a long and tedious process.

Cognizant of ht preceding rationalization, a sustainability measure must be put in place to include strategic plan, feedback mechanisms, monitoring and evaluation working on an operational concept of empowerment and pro-active leadership.

Participation in community affairs by the student-trainees should not be a one-shot deal or a mere compliance of curricular requirements. Engaging in community works should be viewed as an indispensable process whereby citizens render voluntary and altruistic service development initiatives.

This perspective is attuned to that universal belief that “we are our brother’s keeper.” The process part is completed with sustaining responsive community action in step with the aim of effecting CHANGE towards the advancement of the nation.

CHANGE in the output/outcome phase is the realization of the ends of NSTP, the immediate result (output) of intervention-process are the products of the training program – the NSTP trainees who, through the course of the training learn to be civic conscious and socially responsible youth helping the society via altruistic service.

In the long run and in the final analysis (outcome), successful implementation of NSTP is tantamount to establishing good governance and genuine empowerment of the Filipinos for national growth and development.

If only each and every student has internalized the quintessential aims of NSTP, then, time will come, sooner if not soon, when our nation will soar greater heights and wider horizons for us and for the future generations.

----------------------- Civic-conscious and socially responsible youth for Helping the Society via Altruistic Service towards

National Development, Good Governance, Empowerment of the Filipinos

Sustaining Responsive Community Action

Empowerment Scheme thru Extension/Community Service

Resource Organization and Social Mobilization

Assessment of Internal and External Environments

Capability – Enhancement for Leadership

People empowerment for national development

Training and development towards

Students and community thru

Nurture and nourish

OUTPUT/ OUTCOME

PROCESS

INPUT

N S T P C A R E S for C H A N G E Model (The VIDAL Framework for the Implementation of the Program Components of NSTP)