A most basic definition of the state is an organization that maintains monopoly of violence over a territory. One of the most important elements of a state is called sovereignty, or the ability to carry out actions or policies within a territory independently from external actors or internal rivals. A state needs to be able to act as the primary authority over its territory and the people who live there, setting laws and rights, resolving disputes between people and organization and generating domestic security. (O’Neil H. Patrick pg. 22) Every state is founded on force. A social institution should know the use of violence because if they didn’t the concept of a state would be eliminated and an anarchy would emerge. (O’Neil H. Patrick and Rogowski Ronald pg. 22)
A state can be defined as a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory. A territory is one of the characteristics of the state. The relationship between the state and violence is intimate, the state is considered the sole source of the right to use violence. If the state is to exist the dominated party must obey the authority claimed by the powers be. The state is a relation of men dominating men supported by the use of legitimate violence. . (O’Neil H. Patrick and Rogowski Ronald pg.23) All states are classified according to whether they rest on the principle that the staff of men themselves own administrative means or whether the staff is separated from the means of administration.
The administrative means consist of money, building, war material, vehicles, horses, or whatnot. Political associations in which the material goods are autonomously controlled wholly or partly by the dependent administrative staff may be called the association organized in estates. (O’Neil H. Patrick and Rogowski Ronald pg.24) The bureaucratic states order is important, its most rational development is precisely the characteristic of a modern state.
The modern state controls the total means of the political organization. In the modern state no single official personally owns the money being paid out, or the building, stores, tools and war machines controlled. In the contemporary state the separation of the administrative staff, of the officials, and of the workers from the material means of the administration organization is completed. The modern state is a compulsory association which organizes domination, it has been successful in seeking to monopolize the legitimate use of physical force as a means of domination within a territory. (O’Neil H. Patrick and Rogowski Ronald pg.25)
A regime is one of the institutions that helps you define and direct the state. A regime is defined as the fundamental rules and norms of politics. The regime embodies long term goals regarding individual freedom and collective equality where power should reside and how it should be used . Regimes are an important component of the larger state framework, regimes don’t easily or quickly change although they can be transformed or altered usually by dramatic social events such as a revolution or a national crisis. (O’Neil H. Patrick pg. 24) States can be called weak states or strong states.
A strong state can be defined as a state that can be able to fulfill basic tasks, they can defend their territory make and enforce rules and rights, collect taxes and manage the economy. A weak state can execute such task very well. Weak state are not well institutionalized and lack of authority and legitimacy. In the extreme, the structure of the state may become so weak that it breaks to a large extent and when it reaches to that the state is called a failed state. (O’Neil H. Patrick pg. 39-40) A nation is defined as a group that desires self government through an independent state.
A national identity is defined as a set of institutions that bind together through common political aspiration especially self government and sovereignty. National identity also involves issues of equality, such as secessionist movements that argue that independence would eliminate unequal treatment at the hands of some other group. National identity then creates nationalism, which is a pride in one people and the belief that they have their own sovereign political destiny that is separate from those of others. (O’Neil H. Patrick pg. 50-51) Citizenship is a purely political identity developed not out of some unique set of circumstances or ascripted by birth but rather developed explicitly by states and accepted by or rejected by individuals.
Citizenship can be defined as an individual’s or a group’s relationship to the state. Citizenship ca also convey certain obligation as the duty to serve in the military or pay taxes. (O’Neil H. Patrick pg 52) After citizenship, there came the rise of patriotism. Patriotism is the pride in one’s state. People are patriotic when they have pride in their political system and they seek to defend and promote it. States that are weak or illegitimate often have difficulty instilling patriotism among their citizens, which makes it defending the states in times of war difficult.
When u are a citizen, it doesn’t mean that you are patriotic. (O’Neil H. Patrick pg 53) When the war off the princes ended and the war of the people began it created the nation state. A nation state is a sovereign state encompassing one dominant nation that it claims to embody and represent. Within a hundred years most of the multiethnic empires that dominated Europe were would be destroyed, replaced by nation-states that were dominated by distinct ethnic groups and political identities (O’Neil H. Patrick pg 54)
Making comparison between countries is difficult because what is radical for one country may be conservative for another. Ideologies emerged with the construction of the modern secular states to provide means for guiding politics. Political ideologies can be defined as a set of political values held by individuals regarding the fundamental goals of politics. (O’Neil H. Patrick pg63)
In the modern world there are five primary ideologies, they are liberisim, communism, social democracy, fascism and anarchism. Ideologies are concerned with the ideal relationship between freedom and equality for all individuals and the proper role of political institutions in achieving or maintaining this relationships. (O’Neil H. Patrick pg 63) Liberalism as an ideology places a high priority on individual political and economic freedom. Communism differs greatly from liberalism in its views of freedom and equality. Communism rejects the idea that personal freedom will ensure prosperity fro the majority.
Social democracy also known as socialism accepts a strong role for private ownership and market forces while still maintaining and emphasis on economic equality. (O’Neil H. Patrick pg 63-65) Fascism is hostile to the idea of individual freedom and also rejects the notion of equality. Fascism rest on the idea that people and groups can be classified in terms of inferiority and superiority. Anarchism are opposed to the idea that the state can solve this problem, they share with the communist the beliefs that private property leads to inequality. (O’Neil H. Patrick pg 65)
The fundamental source of conflict in the new world will not be ideological or primarily economic. The division will be the conflict of cultures. Nation- state will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principle conflict of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilization. Conflict between civilizaton will be the latest phase in the evolution of confllict in the modern world. (O’Neil H. Patrick and Rogowski Ronald pg. 84)
Reference Page. O’Neil H. Patrick- Essentials of comparitive politics third edition. O’Neil H. Patrick and Rogowski Ronald- Essential Readings in Comparitive Polotics, third edition.