These people could be distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, education, corporate, or military control. Such states are often controlled by a few prominent families who pass their influence from one generation to the next. Throughout history, oligarchies have been tyrannical (relying on public servitude to exist) or relatively benign. Aristotle pioneered the use of the term as a synonym for rule by the rich, for which the exact term is plutocracy, but oligarchy is not always a rule by wealth, as oligarchs can simply be a privileged group, and do not have to be connected by bloodlines as in a monarchy. Monarchy:
Forms of monarchy differ widely based on the level of legal autonomy the monarch holds in governance, the method of selection of the monarch, and any predetermined limits on the length of their tenure. Powers of monarch Today, the extent of a monarch's powers varies: * In an absolute monarchy, the monarch rules as an autocrat, with absolute power over the state and government—for example, the right to rule by decree, promulgate laws, and impose punishments. * In a constitutional monarchy the monarch is subject to a constitution. The monarch serves as a ceremonial figurehead symbol of national unity and state continuity.
The monarch is nominally sovereign but the electorate, through their parliament/legislature, exercise usually limited political sovereignty. Constitutional monarchs have limited political power. A monarch's powers and influence may depend on tradition, precedent, popular opinion, and law. In other cases the monarch's power is limited, not due to constitutional restraints, but to effective military rule. Person of monarch Most states only have a single person acting as monarch at any given time, although two monarchs have ruled simultaneously in some countries, a situation known as diarchy.
Historically this was the case in the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, and there are examples of joint sovereignty of spouses or relatives. A regent may rule when the monarch is a minor, absent, or debilitated. A pretender is a claimant to an abolished throne or to a throne already occupied by somebody else. Abdication is when a monarch resigns. Monarchs often take part in certain ceremonies, such as a coronation. Democracy: Encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination.
The term "democracy" first appeared in ancient Greek political and philosophical thought in the city-state of Athens. Led by Cleisthenes, Athenians established what is generally held as the first democracy in 508-507 BCE. Cleisthenes is referred to as "the father of Athenian democracy. " Athenian democracy took the form of a direct democracy, and it had two distinguishing features: the random selection of ordinary citizens to fill the few existing government administrative and judicial offices, and a legislative assembly consisting of all Athenian citizens.
All citizens were all to speak and vote in the assembly, which set the laws of the city state. However, Athenian citizenship excluded women, slaves, foreigners, and males under 20 years old. Basic forms Direct Direct democracy is a political system where the citizens participate in the decision-making personally, contrary to relying on intermediaries or representatives. Representative Representative democracy involves the selection of government officials by the people being represented.
If the head of state is also democratically elected then it is called a democratic republic. Parliamentary Parliamentary democracy is a representative democracy where government is appointed by representatives as opposed to a 'presidential rule' wherein the President is both head of state and the head of government and is elected by the voters. Presidential Presidential Democracy is a system where the public elects the president through free and fair elections. The president serves as both the head of state and head of government controlling most of the executive powers.
The president serves for a specific term and cannot exceed that amount of time. Constitutional A constitutional democracy is a representative democracy in which the ability of the elected representatives to exercise decision-making power is subject to the rule of law, and usually moderated by a constitution that emphasizes the protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals, and which places constraints on the leaders and on the extent to which the will of the majority can be exercised against the rights of minorities. Munira Al-Saud. 10/2.