Model United Nations

Peacekeeping, as defined by the United Nations, is a "way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace. " Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development. India is a charter member of the United Nations and participates in all of its specialized agencies. India is regular contributor to United Nations peacekeeping missions since independence in different forms beginning with a medical mission in Korea.

Ever since military personnel began to be deployed for peacekeeping, India has been a key contributor beginning with 1956 Arab – Israeli war. Later, India’s contribution towards ensuring peace in Congo proved vital to the country’s stability after decolonization. At present, there are 8680 Indian personnel in 9 of the 14 peace-keeping operations. India is one of the main contributors to the UN regular budget. Indian contribution to United Nations Democracy Fund was USD 16 million for 2009.

India’s contribution is not only reflective of the objectives set out in the UN charter, but also has generated goodwill in different parts of the world especially in the developing world. Furthermore, it has served India’s national security interests in her near and extended neighborhood. A PEACEKEEPING OPERATION is led by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), and works to create the conditions for lasting peace in a country torn by conflict. A peacekeeping operation consists of military, police and civilian personnel, who work to deliver security, political and early peace building support.

There are currently 15 peacekeeping operations and one special political mission – the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) – led by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. * MINURSO, Western Sahara * MINUSMA, Mali * MINUSTAH, Haiti * MONUSCO, D. R. of the Congo * UNAMA, Afghanistan * UNAMID, Darfur * UNDOF, Syrian Golan Heights * UNFICYP, Cyprus * UNIFIL, Lebanon * UNISFA, Abyei * UNMIK, Kosovo * UNMIL, Liberia * UNMISS, South Sudan * UNMOGIP, India and Pakistan * UNOCI, Cote d'Ivoire.

UNTSO Middle East INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW International humanitarian law (IHL), or the law of armed conflict, is the law that regulates the conduct of armed conflicts. "It comprises a set of rules, established by treaty or custom, that seeks to protect persons and property/objects that are (or may be) affected by armed conflict and limits the rights of parties to a conflict to use methods and means of warfare of their choice". IHL is inspired by considerations of humanity and the mitigation of human suffering.

It is designed to balance humanitarian concerns and military necessity, and subjects warfare to the rule of law by limiting its destructive effect and mitigating human suffering. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris. The Declaration arose directly from the experience of the Second World War and represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled.

It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions and laws. UDHR is described as the "Most Translated Document" in the world. SUDAN The United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) was established by the UN Security Council under Resolution 1590[1] of 24 March 2005, in response to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement on January 9, 2005 in Nairobi, Kenya.

UNMIS tasks are to support the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, to perform certain functions relating to humanitarian assistance, protection, promotion of human rights, and to support African Union Mission in Sudan. [2] The mandate of UNMIS ended on 9 July 2011; the UNSC officially ended the mission on 11 July 2011, with a drawdown by 31 August 2011. Equipment and personnel will be transferred to UNISFA and UNMISS. Up to 10,000 military personnel including some 750 military observers; as well as 715 civilian police, 1,018 international civilian staff, 2,623 national staff and 214 UN Volunteers.

There is a small African Union force on the ground that will in time be incorporated into the U. N. force. Force protection will be provided by various contributing countries. Method of financing Approved budget for the one year period between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2007 (Resolution 60/122 B): $1,079,530,000. Current Situation The Ceasefire Agreement comes into effect on the date of signature of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement(CPA). The strategic end state is determined as: a. A stable Sudan capable of conducting a peaceful referendum 61/2 years after the Mandate in South Sudan and Abyei. b.

The ability for South Sudan to determine Sudanese unity or peaceful secession. c. The ability for Abyei to determine unification with Bar el Gazhal or separate status within North Sudan. d. Provision for a stable environment in Southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile State to allow the peoples of those States through consultation come to an agreement that will be the final settlement of the political conflict in their State. [Robert Zoellick, U. S. Deputy Secretary of State (right) with Jan Pronk, the United Nations' special representative to Sudan during Donors Conference for Sudan held in Oslo on April 12, 2005] * *.