Mixed Method Research-Juvenile And Adult Criminal Behavior

This is a study on the causes of conflict and violence in pre-marital and marital relationships among the American-African couples and the partners’ reactions patterns. The purpose of the study is to establish the factors that are responsible for the ever increasing cases of violence, separation and /or divorce among American-Africa partners with specific attention to the opposite sex relationships. The study shall adopt both case study and survey designs to study the relationships with cases in court both at the present and the past one year at the Kenyan High court in capital City of Nairobi.

The study shall adopt purposive sampling aimed at involving only those relationship cases between American and African couples handled by the Kenyan High Court in the city of Nairobi. Data for this study shall be collected by use of questionnaires, interviews, and analysis of the available relevant secondary sources while the collected information will be analyzed and presented by frequencies, tables, graphs, charts and essay form.

Chapter one of this proposal reflects the introductory details including the statement of the while chapter two reflects the critical view of the available relevant literatures and finally chapter three which an objective presentation of the methodology of the study. Chapter One: Introduction 1. 0 Introduction This chapter reflects the background information, the statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, assumptions of the study and the operational definitions of terms. 1. 1 Background of the study According to Chalk, (1998).

Marriage between American and African couples can be traced to the colonial period when the American colonists travelled to African, stayed among Africans and intermarried, some of which were peaceful while others forced. This has continued until currently, it is a common phenomenon that Africans engaged in relationships with other individuals from other continents whether pre-marital or marital in nature indulge in, (Cox, 1999). Some of these relationships are temporarily for convenience purposes while a number of then lead to marriages which may last as long as the engaged partners are in one understanding and agreement.

Even though marriages and relationships are meant to be source of joy, many couples experience its stressful side leading to separation, divorce and other diverse reaction patterns by the affected members, (Sprenkle et al, 2005). Recent occurrences in relationships among African and American nationals are astonishing, media and other sources report at an alarming rate cases of conflicts and violence between the partners, (Sprenkle et al, 2005). The aftermath of which is reflected in amazing rates of criminal acts against the “lovers” and which are reported at the police cells and courts.

All forms of acts, murder, physical violence, rape, separations, divorce, kidnapping among many others are all taken against individuals by people who once loved them. Not so long ago, both local and international broadcasting stations and print media reported cases in which African females were brutally murdered by their lovers in cities outside the African continents while both local and international courts are overwhelmed by both pre-marital and marital cases. Many people are tang tied by these astonishing developments in which African-American relationships hardly last but end sourly against the expectations.

It is therefore the purpose of this study to establish what might be the cause(s) of this, analyze the information gathered draw conclusion and to propose appropriate recommendations aimed at minimizing its drastic effects. 1. 2 Statement of the problem What could be the possible cause(s) of conflicts and violence among American-African couples? The study of the factors that lead to conflicts, violence and its results will help marriage/family therapists as well as the relating couples to take actions aimed at avoiding possible problems and to have peaceful and lasting relationships.

1. 3 Purpose of the study The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that are responsible for the conflicts in marriages among American and African nationals, case study of present and previous cases handled at the Kenyan High Court in Nairobi City, analyze and to propose possible solutions to these problem. 1. 4 Objectives The following are the objectives of this study: i. To find out the number of relationship cases among American and African nationals reported at the Kenyan High Court in Nairobi.

ii. To establish the couple’s views of the cause of their conflicts. iii. To investigated the frequency with which the conflicts are reported. iv. To find out the victims’ reaction to these American-African pre-marital/marital conflicts. 1. 5 Hypothesis i. Most relationships between Americans and Africans are not long lasting. ii. Most conflicts result to divorce, separation, violence and criminal acts. 1. 6 Assumptions of the study The following assumptions shall be made during the study. i.

That the premarital/marital cases of conflicts reported at the Kenya High Court in Nairobi have causes. ii. That the sample chosen for this study would be perfect representation of similar cases elsewhere. 1. 7 Scope and limitations of the study. This study shall be limited to the factors responsible for conflicts and violence among American and African Couples whether in Marital and Premarital relationships and be limited to the reported cases at the Kenyan High Court at Nairobi. 1. 8 Operational definition of terms

Intimate relationships: – love affair involving members of the opposite sex Court: – an institution of law where conflicts are lawfully resolved Mixed method: – a method of research in which both qualitative and quantitative methods are adopted in a study Couples: – people of the opposite sex relating intimately Chapter Two: Literature Review 2. 0 Introductions This chapter presents critical view of the literature related to conflicts in American African pre-marital/marital relationships. 2. 1 Causes of pre-marital/marital conflicts

Most of the relationships, especially those among most partners in the developing countries experience conflicts resulting from financial related causes, (Lingren, 2000). These include inability of especially the male to provide the family needs and financial spending On the other hand, just as any other factor, sex characterized by limited satisfaction level, over demand of sex by one of the relating individuals which cannot be effectively provided for by the other side , is as quite but very active determinant of the success as influence of the close relatives (in-laws).

Most pre-marital relationships involving Africans and Americans are for convenience and need for at least a child is not a priority and according to Johnson, (1999) the relationship of this kind would be smooth if both the partners subscribe to the decision to of not or to have children and the manner of bring them up. This coupled with lack of effective communication through which problems are solved pose greater challenges.

Other reported causes include drug abuse, religious/spiritual affiliation, individual characteristics and divergent individual dreams and goals, pre-conceived ideas of marriage, and individual leisure preferences, (Clarke-Stewart, 2006) and causes divorce, violence, legal actions, single parenthood and death from murder or suicide. Chapter three: Methodology 3. 0 Introduction This chapter contains the study design, location of study, target population, sampling technique and sample size, data collection instruments, data collection process and the data analysis methods. 3. 1 Study design.

This study shall adopt both cases study and survey designs. American-African relationships in Nairobi Kenya are just but a representation of such kind of intimate relationships elsewhere. On the other, survey design will be adopted in studying all the recorded cases of such nature for the past four years. The cases study design allows for the in-depth analysis of sampled cases i. e. Kenyan situation while survey design, allows investigation of many cases at the same time, (Todd, 2004) 3. 2 Location of the study This study will be located in Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya.

The high Court is situated at the heart of the city adjacent to the prestigious, Kenyatta International Conference Centre. 3. 3 Target Population The study targets all the individuals involved in relationships which have experienced conflicts and violence in different forms and which have been reported in Kenyan High court over the previous three years. 3. 4 Sampling technique and sample size Sampling technique shall be purely purposive since all the relationship cases involving American and African nationals as recorded by the High Court at Nairobi are to be investigated.

Purposive sampling will also be used to select Nairobi law courts as a representation of other courts. This method ensures that the cases with the desired characteristics are selected for the study. 3. 5 Instruments for data collection Data shall be collected using questionnaires, interviews, observation and analysis of secondary records. These methods shall be vital in getting both qualitative and quantitative data. Questionnaires and interviews shall be developed in getting information from the affected victims and judges at the court.

Questionnaires make it possible to generate information over a shorter period of time although some may not be responded to. Even though expensive, interviews enable clarifying answers and probing for additional information. Further, the available court proceedings on the reported cases shall be analyzed since the information is easily available. 3. 6 Data analysis Collected information shall be analyzed quantitatively and expressed by means of percentages of occurrences, table of suspected causes and their frequencies, graphs comparing the prevalence/reported causes and individual reactions of the members.

Other information collected through interviews and questionnaires shall be analyzed and presented in statement form. References Sprenkle, D. H. , Piercy, F. P. (2005). Research Methods in Family Therapy. New York: Guilford Press, Todd, Z. (2004). Mixing methods in psychology the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in theory and practice. New York: Psychology Press. Cox, M. J. , Brooks-Gunn, J. (1999). Conflict & Cohesion in Families Causes & Consequences. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Chalk, R. A. , King, P. A.

, (1998). Violence in Families Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs. Washington, D. C: National Academy Press. Johnson, R. W. (1999). African American voices African American health educators speak out. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett. Lingren, H. G. (2000). “Fighting fair” in marriage. Lincoln: University of Nebraska- Lincoln. Clarke-Stewart, A. , Brentano, C. (2006). Divorce Causes and consequences. New Haven: Yale University Press Dixon, W. J. (1891). Law and Practice in Divorce and Other Matrimonial Causes. London: Reeves & Turner