Microstructure. Gulf of Mexico

Executive Summary In this report, we are going to write about the oil that spilled in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010.The report has three important aspects. First of all, to learn about the impact of oil spills on human health. Secondly, to improve mitigation efforts. Finally, to prevent adverse health effects from occurring in individuals affected .In my opinion, not only the accident is important to be learned by the governments from all over the world in order to not repeat this problem, but also for their people who have not yet knew the damages and the effects of the industrial wastes that have been threw in the sea.

There are main findings in this report. First of all, this is not the first time oil spill has happened in the Gulf of Mexico. Second of all, the first one was in 1979. Also, there are many disasters of oil spill that has happened over the years in different places from all over the world. Finally, a shocking and surprising statistic states that 250 million gallons of oil is an average yearly spill.

Introduction

This report is about the oil spill which is the leak of liquid oil into the environment, especially marine areas. We discuss that in the world and particularly in Mexico as an example. We focus on the reasons why such a horrible situation like this happened, and the effects of the oil spill on the environment, the economy, health, and on marine life. Also we are going to give some solutions that have been suggested to solve this issue. Rationale for the study

The oil spill is a huge problem that must be avoided. This issue may cost millions of dollars to clean up the oil from the ocean, the animals and the people indirectly can be killed due to the oil spill. The world has to be aware and careful to not let such a horrible disaster like the oil spill happen because it can cost human and economic damages. Also, it is important to know the impact of the oil spill on the environment, economy and human health if it happened. Literature review

On the twentieth of April 2010, an oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico causing millions of gallons of oil leaking into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil's mechanic for the rig stated that the well had problems for months and that the drill repeatedly kicked due to high gas pressure providing resistance.

According to a report by 60 Minutes, the blowout preventer was damaged in a previously unreported accident in late march 2010. As you just read, the explosion was because combined of lack of responsibility and ignoring small things like the well problem that became more serious leading the rig to sink. EFFECTS OF THE OIL SPILL

There are consequences after the explosion happened including the effects of the oil environment, economy and on the marine and the wild life.

Environmental effects Oil is poisonous subject that can lead to serious diseases. The explosion left 14 dead workers and 17 injured workers who work in the oil rig. Local hospitals and health organizations have reported 415 complaints about the pollutions of the Mexico and heat stress. Some of the symptoms were irritations, headaches, dizziness nausea and fatigue. Also, the explosion developed oil – related illness for Louisiana state residents which is next to the Gulf of Mexico such as itch and headaches.

A) Marine life The Oil spill killed the animals in the Gulf of Mexico and it may cause the extinction for some animals such as turtles and whale died because of the oil spill and it was found near the Gulf of Mexico about 77 miles from the leaking oil. On the other hand, the oil spill affect wildlife indirect way. When oil and wildlife contact physically, the wildlife is negatively impacted. In addition, oil spill impacted on the animals such as birds. Birds, which covered with oil, cannot fly because they lose their ability for flying due to

Economic effects A) Tourism The Gulf of Mexico is located on north east of the United States of America. It is a coastal ocean for Florida which a city that attract tourists from all over the world. The U.S.A hosts more than 80 million visitors in 2009, and earned 60 million dollars in total. Imagine the loses that have been got after the explosion if we count it as losing 80 million visitors equals to losing millions of dollars.

B) Cleaning up the oil spill After the explosion of the oil rig, around 4 million gallons of oil spilled to ocean. For that reason, the government has to pay a lot of money and a lot of work to clean up the ocean. British oil company BP says "The cost of cleaning up the oil from the ocean is from 350 million dollars to 450 million dollars in just three days. Totally, the cost to clean up the oil spill has been estimated at 12.5 billion dollars.

C) Food effects The oil spill can affect the food indirectly. The animals in the sea eat polluted food from the sea which is polluted from the oil. As a result, the people will not eat these animals because they became harmful. So the food for people will decrease. On the other hand, the species of sea animals which people depend on for food may decrease. Also, oil spill impacts on the commercial fishing industries.Therefore; they will not produce sea products because the number of fish or other animals will decrease according to the oil spill.

Research methodology

The report is secondary research. In this secondary research, we found out the information that related to this article by reading different sources and reports from many websites. Unfortunately, we could not do a primary research because we have not met anyone have background about this research in order to interview and get new information.

Findings Despite over 378 million of gallons was released in the Gulf of Mexico according to the Los Angeles Times, it is not the largest oil spill in history. Through the years, 500 million of gallons of oil were spilled in 1991 due to Iraqi forces. In the first oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, the Ixtoc 1 rig spilled about 140 million of gallons. A ship in the English Channel spilled about 60 million in 1978. Torrey Canyon, south England, a ship spilled about 30 million of gallons of oil. 11 million of gallons of oil the Exxon Valdes spilled. Check out down the chart that show you the year of oil spill, where it happened, by what happened and how much oil spilled.

By numbers, we found out that the largest oil spill was in 1991 by Iraqi forces but the Gulf of Mexico oil spill is considered as the second smallest. Shockingly, just imagine that 250 million of gallons of oil are average yearly spills from rigs and tankers from all over the world. That sounds scary, the world has to overcome this statistic to protect the environment and the living creatures.

Recommendation When we talk about the solutions for cleaning up the Gulf, thousands of ideas were suggested. Some ideas have been accepted by most people and some ignored. Some of the ideas were perfect but it can cause other problems at the same time such as dumping popcorn above the water to soak up the oil which was not used because this method affects marine life by creating a tasty toxic.

However, there are many ideas that were tested and other ideas were taken to help and improve many other ideas and techniques to clean up the oil. "If there's anything good to come out of this spill, that'll be it," says Hunter Rowe, a BP senior manager. Smith's company, the Massachusetts-based Collect Technologies suggested using a technology device called Opflex that works by making foam in the water that repels the water and absorbs oil.

Scott Smith of Collect Technologies shows his oil-absorbing Opflex foam.

Unfortunately, the idea did not work because BP found that Opflex went weeks without absorbing water. Mike Halloran who sold lawn-mowing equipment in

Chicago suggested using a device which is used to clean up the road from the snow. "We can have a snow blower on the front one day, clean a parking lot with a sweeper the next and then clean tar balls off the beach", Halloran says. BP put 10 of the machines to work and found it good for use in small areas.

Conclusion We have just seen the disaster of oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico as one example in the world. We discussed why such a disaster like that happened and the damages and the effects of the oil spill on the environment and the economy that has been mentioned. There were several solutions proposed to clean up the oil from the ocean but one idea by using a device which is used to clean up the road from the snow was the closest to use. We saw in a chart how million of gallons have been spilled over the years. I hope that our report cover all the aspects that let the world pay attention for this issue in order to overcome it.

Bibliography 1.Wikipedia, 2010-06-15. "The Deepwater Horizon Disaster".

[22 April 2012] http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/05/16/60minutes/main6490197.shtml. 2. Buchanan, Susan. "Spill-related Ailments Decline as Oil is Weatherized."

[22 April 2012] http://gulfofmexicooilspillblog.com/2010/11/29/gulf-of-mexico-oil-spill-blog-itchy-rashes-headaches 3.RUSH, June 01, 2010 ." This Oil Disaster in Perspective, and a Reminder of Saddam's Wells"

[22 April 2012] http://www.rushlimbaugh.com/daily/2010/06/01/this_oil_disaster_in_perspective_and_a_reminder_of_saddam_s_wells

4.Hill, Armina, 2010." Environmental Impacts of Oil Spills on Land in the United States"[23 April 2012] http://www.ehow.com/list_7505046_environmental-spills-land-united-states.html 5.Mason,R and Quinn,J,14 May 2012. "BP oil spill clean-up costs spiral to $33m a day"[24 April 2012] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/energy/oilandgas/7721076/BP-oil-spill-clean-up-costs-spiral-to-33m-a-day.html 6. Schmit, Julie, 11/15/2010. "After BP Oil Spill, Thousands of Ideas Poured in for Cleanup." [26 April 2012] http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/environment/2010-11-15-gulfcleanup15

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