Manegerial Grid-the Leadership Styles

Manergerial Grid-at a glance: The managerial grid model (1957) is a behavioral leadership model developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. This model originally identified five different leadership styles based on the concern for people and the concern for production. The optimal leadership style in this model is based on Theory Y. ()http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Managerial_grid_modelThe leadership grid allows managers to analyze their own management style, and plot it within the grid. They then can assess whether their style could be improved. Different situations might call for changes in management style. The Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions:

* Concern for People - This is the degree to which a leader considers the needs of team members, their interests, and areas of personal development when deciding how best to accomplish a task

* Concern for Production - This is the degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task. Using the axis to plot leadership 'concerns for production' versus 'concerns for people', Blake and Mouton defined the five leadership styles. They both have a range of 0 to 9. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction of simplicity. These two dimensions can be drawn as a graph or grid:

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We come up with five types of leaders: * Authoritarian — strong on tasks, weak on people skills * Country Club — strong on people skills, weak on tasks * Middle of the road- Same on Taskes and people skills * Impoverished — weak on tasks, weak on people skills * Team Leader — strong on tasks, strong on people skills

Authoritarian Leader (high task, low relationship) Production is incidental to lack of conflict and good fellowship. People who get this rating are very much task oriented and are hard on their workers (autocratic). There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. Heavily task oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules; they expect people to do what they are told without question or debate; when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it; they are intolerant of what they see as dissent (it may just be someone's creativity), so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop. Team Leader (high task, high relationship)

Production is from integration of task and human requirements. This type of person leads by positive example and endeavors to foster a team environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential, both as team members and as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. They normally form and lead some of the most productive teams. Middle of the road management

Push for production but not all out giving space and being fair but firm. A weak balance of focus on both people and the work. Doing enough to get things done, but not pushing the boundaries of what may be possible. A Middle of the Road style of leadership is one which attempts to balance the goals of the organization with the needs of people. Compromise is required, and as boundaries are not pushed it tends to result in average performance where neither goals nor needs are fully met. Workers end up only moderately motivated and performance is seen only to be moderately effective.

This is plotted at 5,5 on the grid. This style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns. It may at first appear to be an ideal compromise. Therein lies the problem, though: When you compromise, you necessarily give away a bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are fully met. Leaders who use this style settle for average performance and often believe that this is the Country Club Leader (low task, high relationship)

This person uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. Conversely, they are almost incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with the other team members. Impoverished Leader (low task, low relationship)

A leader who uses a "delegate and disappear" management style. Since they are not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance; they essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles. The most desirable place for a leader to be along the two axes at most times would be a 9 on task and a 9 on people — the Team Leader. However, do not entirely dismiss the other three.

Certain situations might call for one of the other three to be used at times. For example, by playing the Impoverished Leader, you allow your team to gain self-reliance. Be an Authoritarian Leader to instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated worker. By carefully studying the situation and the forces affecting it, you will know at what points along the axes you need to be in order to achieve the desired result. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcon.html