Management Information System

1. How do smart grids differ from the current electricity infrastructure in the United States? A smart grid delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using digital technology to • save energy

• reduce costs • increase reliability and transparency Current electricity grids do not provide any information about how consumers actually use energy. Without useful system offers few ways to handle power provided by alternative energy sources. Without useful information, energy companies and consumers have difficulty making good decisions about using energy wisely.

2. What management, organization, and technology issues should be considered when developing a smart grid? Information feedback would allow consumers to see how much energy they are consuming at any moment and how much it’s costing them. That would allow them to make better decisions about using appliances like air conditioners and furnaces.

They could potentially lower their energy bills. Operating budgets and profits would be severely impacted if consumers greatly reduced their energy consumption. Implementation costs would be extremely high, even with federal government assistance. Communications systems to relay data along the entire energy supply system, and systems linked to programmable appliances to run them when energy is least costly.

3. What challenge to the development of smart grids do you think is most likely to hamper their development? Some challenges to the development of smart grids include: • Changing the infrastructure of the entire electric grid across the nation • Installing two-way meters that allow information to flow both to and from homes and businesses • Creating dashboards that are user-friendly

• Extremely high costs of retrofitting the entire grid infrastructure, estimated to be as high as $75 billion • Potential intrusiveness of new technology

4.What other areas of our infrastructure could benefit from ‘smart’ technologies? Describe one example not listed in the case. One example that could benefit from smart similar to the proposed electric grids is monitoring water usage in homes and businesses. Smart technologies could allow water utilities and consumers to • Monitor water flows much like electric usage

• Turn off lawn sprinklers during the heat of the day or based on predetermined schedules 5. Would you like your home and your community to be part of a smart grid? Why or why not? Explain. Yes, because provides information that would help utilities raise prices when demand is high and lower them when demand lessens

Case 2 1. What is Procter & Gamble’s business strategy? What is the relationship of collaboration and innovation to that business strategy? P&G’s business is built around brand creation and management, it’s critical that the company facilitate collaboration between researchers, marketers, and managers. And because P&G is such a big company, and makes such a wide array of products, achieving these goals is a daunting task.

2. How is P&G using collaboration systems to execute its business model and business strategy? List and describe the collaboration systems and technologies it is using and the benefits of each. P&G collaborates between researchers, marketers, and managers.

Collaboration systems and technologies by communications. Researchers use the tools to share the data they’ve collected on various brands; marketers can more effectively access the data they need to create more highly targeted ad campaigns; and managers are more easily able to find the people and data they need to make critical business decisions. Collaboration tools are like business and social networks–the more people connect to the network, the greater the value to all participants. Collaborative tools grow in usefulness as more and more workers contribute their information and insights

3. Why were some collaborative technologies slow to catch on at P&G? Collaborative tools grow in usefulness as more and more workers contribute their information and insights. They also allow employees quicker access to the experts within the company that have needed information and knowledge. But these benefits are contingent on the lion’s share of company employees using the tools.

4. Compare P&G’s old and new processes for writing up and distributing the results of a research experiment.

5. Why is telepresence such a useful collaborative tool for a company like P&G?

Telepresence is an excellent way to foster collaboration between employees across not just countries, but continents. In the past, telepresence technologies were prohibitively expensive and overly prone to malfunction. Today, the technology makes it possible to hold high-definition meetings over long distances. P&G boasts the world’s largest rollout of Cisco TelePresence technology.

6. Can you think of other ways P&G could use collaboration to foster innovation? The breadth of our business creates opportunities to connect technology and capabilities across categories and global regions in unexpected ways or to foster disruptive innovations that change the game. So we seek collaboration in areas, such as packaging, design, distribution, business models, marketing models, consumer research methods, trademark licensing, and technology research. We are also interested in innovations that can help increase the demand, reach and sales of our brands

Case 3

1.What competitive strategy are the credit card companies pursuing? How do information systems support that strategy? According to the case, the credit card companies are making use of the data to track down various buying habits and create new services in terms of promotions. For example, the credit card company can create new promotions on air tickets when they target individuals who have frequent habits of travelling via airplanes for personal and other business trips.

2.What are the business benefits of analyzing customer purchase data and constructing behavioral profiles? The company stores the customer’s information in the repository and with the use of data mining and other business intelligence, the company can find the hidden patterns such as what are the buying habits of the customers, what is the payment habit of the customer, does the customer pay the debt on time or is there any frauds involved. Once the company have all these information from analyzing, the company can perform better decision making. The company can decide what promotion to give to customers.

3.Are these practices by credit card companies ethical? Are they an invasion of privacy? It is not ethical. The privacy of the cardholder is directly violated if the credit card usage is being tracked. The cardholder’s credit record could be abuse and used to harm the cardholder.

Case 4

1. Which of the five moral dimensions on the information system identified in this text is involved in this case? In my opinion in this case we can see many things involved, one of them is the Information rights and obligations, because it is true that the people have many rights and freedom for doing what they want, but it is true also that all of us have the obligations to keep control about ourselves while we are driving and expose others life; and the obligation in this case is not text driving and enforce laws.

Just the beep of the message is distracting and people started to think about the recent conversation or message. With the accountability and control the ethical position or the right thing is to pay the harm to individual, collective and property rights, because other people will suffer the consequences and the only way to apply the law and keep a good system quality and the quality of life that everyone deserve.

2. What are the Ethical, social and political issues raised by this case? In this case many states have banned texting while driving so the Ethical, social and political issue have agreed that is the only way to reduce cars accidents, but the problem still and it is to deal with the individual in the ethical, social and political level; which is different for each person and depend on their education, the other thing is there are interest opposed in to do the legislation as usual is with politic.

3. Which of the ethical principles described in the text are useful for decision making about texting while driving? For me the ethical principles described in the text are the pressure to stay connected, the addiction to the digital devices. On the other hand, auto makers and, and safety researches, have argued that it is possible texting while driving with the proper technology; but I am still thinking that it is a risk for everyone even having the best technol